The conclusion revisits the waiting room of citizenship and the spatial, temporal, affective processes and practices that produce and reproduce old and new inequalities not only at the national level, but on the international stage. It argues for the importance of contextual research on the social life of citizenisation and migratisation for a better understanding of the ways in which citizenship and ‘the migrant’ are naturalised as mutually exclusive. In turn, examining life in the waiting room also reveals the various ways in which this dualism unravels. Forensic examinations of the perpetuation of nativist, sedentarist politics of belonging and entitlement will not only make it more difficult to turn away from the inequalities they foster and reinforce, but that the combined tools of citizenisation and migration help unravel these injustices and find alternatives to citizenship that embrace migration and difference as constitutive creative forces of all social life.
The conclusion to this volume opens by discussing how one uses the definitions of militarisation that have been offered in the past and asks whether there really was a process of militarisation implicit in the change from the Roman to post-Roman periods. It then asks to what extent changes in the evidence refer to straightforward increases or decreases in the level of militarisation rather than the relative importance of martial referents in contemporary politics. On that basis, it develops the argument that we are better off thinking of militarisation in terms of discourses than process. We can employ the checklists given in definitions of militarisation as headings under which we can discuss how the martial or the military was employed in – for example – politics, religious debate or social competition.
Traditionally, it has been the wont of scholars to begin considerations of Anglo-Saxon military history with the arrival of the Vikings at the end of the eighth century, with the long stretch of time before this being repeatedly ignored or generalised. As a result, there are few investigations of the pre-Viking enemy and how that enemy was constructed using the notions of othering and outgroups. This chapter considers this issue, particularly in relation to the Northumbrian and Mercian interactions with the Picts, Welsh, British and, importantly, each other. Overall, this chapter demonstrates that violence and warfare in a militarised society were not simply recorded but were conditioned and presented by ideas of internal identity and group cohesion. This was itself a reflection of the process of militarisation that reinforced the importance of military success in defining a people or kingdom.
The late ninth-century rule of King Alfred the Great of Wessex (r. 871–99) is often seen as a formative period in the development of military institutions in the wider English kingdom that emerged in the tenth and eleventh centuries. This chapter is an attempt to review the limited surviving evidence from Alfred’s reign for military organisation, placing it into the context of the observable evidence for the effects of such military organisation, both immediately after the reign of Alfred and in the generations leading up to the Norman Conquest of 1066. Such ‘dark matter’ may be revealing of a process of militarisation with significant social and political consequences for the organisation of the pre-Conquest English kingdom.
Chapter 3 is concerned with the generative capacities of documents, that is, how individuals engage with, relate and respond to documents as they are produced, exchanged, negotiated, transformed and moved by and between individuals. Following the paper traces and trails as they circulate in the waiting room of citizenship takes us to the broader ‘relational politics of curation’ that position applicants and registrars in different relations to each other and to the state. The chapter reveals the role of documents in making and unmaking citizens, migrants and citizenship itself, which means that citizenisation impacts on the lives of migrants and citizens alike, though with significantly different effects. The chapter concludes with a summary of how the ‘documented citizen’ is fragmentary, contingent, ephemeral and caught within a set of interpretive gaps about the law and its effects, while it is at the same time emplaced, temporal, embodied and affective.
The societies of ancient Europe underwent a continual process of militarisation, and this would come to be a defining characteristic of the early Middle Ages. The process was neither linear nor mono-causal, but it affected society as a whole, encompassing features like the lack of demarcation between the military and civil spheres of the population, the significance attributed to weapons beyond their military function and the wide recognition of martial values. This volume assembles twenty chapters that use both written and archaeological evidence to explore the phenomenon of militarisation and its impact on the development of the societies of early medieval Europe. The interdisciplinary investigations break new ground and will be essential reading for scholars and students of related fields, as well as non-specialists with an interest in early medieval history.
This chapter reconsiders the traditional interpretation whereby the use of ‘warrior’ images on early medieval bronze-foils in post-Roman Western Europe indicates the spread of ‘Germanic’ military ideas. The chapter analyses how the historiographical concept of Gefolgschaft, developed and misused between middle of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in German medieval studies, influenced modern archaeological interpretations of early medieval ‘military’ imagery. The chapter suggests that the persistent and uncritical use of Gefolgschaft has created a tendency among archaeologists to interpret depictions of armed figures as an indicator that the military organisation of Post-Roman Western Europe was allegedly based on ‘heroic’ warfare, aristocratic retinues and non-Christian codes of loyalty. By reconsidering the diversity of the images’ archaeological contexts and by retracing the ideological distortion of Gefolgschaft in the first half of the twentieth century, the chapter argues that the ‘warrior’ images on the embossed foils from Sutton Hoo, Vendel, Valsgärde and other locations cannot be taken as reflections of a uniform ‘Germanic’ military culture.
Shifting the analysis away from questions of ethnicity and identity, this chapter explores the interaction between a professional military force and a largely demilitarised civilian population by focusing on organisational as well as operational aspects in peace time. Soldiers of the field army were separated from the civilians by their very profession as defined by Huntington, especially their corporateness. This worked on many levels: functionally (exclusive occupation with warfare), habitually (clothing, bearing arms), legally (own jurisdiction), perhaps even linguistically (lingua nostra), and also – but not predominantly so – ethnically (Gothus). This multi-level distinction from the civilian world worked especially well in the Italian heartland, where the civilians did not participate in any kind of military action and had little to no contact with the military; the few contacts that occurred only highlighted the stark differences between these two groups. However, the ‘grand strategy’ of Theoderic would require a much stronger interaction between the troops and civilians in the border regions, as he (and his field army) usually exerted very little direct influence there, and thus some degree of militarisation of the civilian population was to be expected.
This chapter analyses the cinematic representations of the principle of distinction, one of the cornerstones of the law of armed conflict. In general, the view presented in these films and TV series is that it is extremely difficult or even impossible to effectively apply the principle of distinction in the field. Law is depicted as being ill adapted to properly regulate armed conflicts, too burdensome and out of touch with the dictates of the realities on the ground. In most cases, legal norms are submitted to the viewers’ scrutiny, either implicitly, or explicitly. Cinematic productions convey a specific stance as to the relevance, usefulness and applicability of the law of armed conflict. Sometimes, the principle of distinction is applied very flexibly and the rule is interpreted very (sometimes too) extensively. In other cases, the rule is simply put aside in the name of (military) necessity. Other productions, rather than focusing on the applicability or interpretation of the rule, use the legal framework as a broader narrative to (de)legitimize an armed conflict or a specific State-led operation.
Diversity and ambivalence of transnational care trajectories within postsocialist migration experience
Petra Ezzeddine and Hana Havelková
The chapter analyses how specific transnational care practices are reflected in the personal life trajectories of women from Ukraine and former Yugoslavia with migration and refugee experience in the postsocialist context of contemporary Czech Republic. The focus of the chapter is on the influence of gendered norms and expectations on women’s transnational care practices and their feelings of care obligation, and it explores the women’s specific coping strategies for dealing with practical and emotional challenges arising at the juncture of contradictory expectations. These are: a) guilt over ’leaving behind’, b) a strategy of temporariness, and c) struggles to achieve a work–care combination within broader family structures in the transnational environment. The research findings show how geographical borders shape the life trajectories of transnational mothers and daughters, enabling the women to live parallel lives in a transnational space, where they move back and forth between their reproductive and productive roles. The borders of nation states determine their legal status as ‘third-country nationals’ who have limited opportunities for family reunification with their children or parents and thus have to search for alternative ways and strategies to fulfil socially expected gender roles.