Browse

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 813 items for :

  • Manchester Shakespeare x
  • All content x
Clear All
Abstract only
James Doelman

Chapter 3 explores how poets read royal deaths in relation to surrounding phenomena, both astronomical and political: the coincidence of the death of Queen Anne (d. 1619) with a prominent comet prompted commentary on the significance of such events for the nation. King James’s death was met by an elegiac response that struggled to mourn in the face of the nearly immediate royal wedding of King Charles and Henrietta Maria. These elegies situate the royal deaths in the context of national, international, and cosmic events and show a tendency to understand one royal death in relationship to another through echoes of theme, language, and metaphor. While many of the printed elegies on Anne and James maintained a careful and limited focus of lament, manuscript elegies ranged more widely, including into matters of detraction and critique. The latter part of the chapter considers the poetic response to the 1629 deaths of Prince Frederick Henry of the Palatinate and the infant Prince Charles. Overall, these funeral elegies manifest a developing elegiac rhetoric for mourning royal figures.

in The daring muse of the early Stuart funeral elegy
Elegies on George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham
James Doelman

This chapter considers how the deep unpopularity of the royal favourite George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, led to an exceptional number of poems on his 1628 death. Some of these can be described as ‘mock elegies’, which celebrated the assassination or at least were sympathetic to John Felton, the assassin. However, there were also many sincere elegies that, in commemorating the Duke, were compelled to adopt new rhetorical strategies of a primarily defensive nature to counter both general public perception and particular instances of satiric attack upon him. These elegies are far more combative than any other examples of the genre, and frequently they attack the ‘detraction’ of poems against Buckingham and ironically invoke norms of commemoration and elegy to do so. The chapter focuses on a number of individual poems, including the widely circulating ‘Yet were Bidentalls sacred’ and a series of poems unique to a single Edinburgh manuscript.

in The daring muse of the early Stuart funeral elegy
Abstract only
Tanya Pollard

When Thomas Heywood reflects on the theatre, his thoughts turn to the classical tradition, and especially to its Greek roots. In keeping with his practice of transplanting elite classical literary material into popular playhouses, he focuses his theatre history on the ephemeral realm of performance rather than the more familiar textual record. In An Apology for Actors (1612) Heywood looks to Greece for the origins of acting, which he locates especially in the charged figure of Hercules. By turning his attention to embodied performance, Heywood alters a familiar account of theatre’s Greek origins into a strange and unsettling model of imitation and its consequences.

in Thomas Heywood and the classical tradition
Abstract only
Homer and Ausonius in Thomas Heywood’s Various History Concerninge Women
Tania Demetriou

This chapter explores the innovative vernacular classicism of Heywood’s 1624 Gynaikeion. This miscellany of paradigmatic women from history and myth models itself on late antique historical compendia. It also mines diverse other ancient historians for material and intersperses its historical prose with short poetic inventions and translations. They include renditions of Ausonius, a late Roman virtuoso of concise poetics. Heywood pays attention to an unusual range of works by this popular poet, including his epitomes of Homer’s epics. He translates many of these, but is also prompted to include in Gynaikeion testimonies from ancient history that offer his readers a distinctive and haunting perspective on the legendary poet. Heywood’s reception of Homer in Gynaikeion, dismissed by older critics for its indirectness, affords an insight into the author’s very considerable, quirky scholarship, and into the fascinating moral aesthetic of this radically understudied work, which is dependent on juxtaposition, mixed messages and discursive remainders.

in Thomas Heywood and the classical tradition
Thomas Heywood and Hercules
Richard Rowland

This chapter investigates Thomas Heywood’s ambivalent approach to the mythical figure of Hercules, from his admiring eye-witness encounters with this definitive exemplar of martial prowess in plays staged at the Rose playhouse in the 1590s, to his flippant references to the hero in his poetry of the 1630s. In particular, this chapter explores Heywood’s most sustained portrayal of Hercules, in his Jacobean play for the Red Bull Theatre, The Brazen Age (1613). It traces how, for this play, as so often, Heywood lifts material from a formidable array of sources (Ovid, the Punica of Silius Italicus, the pseudo-Senecan Hercules Oetaeus) and yet abandons fidelity to all of them when it comes to depicting the female victims of Hercules’ sexual violence and challenging, through the depiction of rape, his character’s masculinity. The chapter also suggests that Heywood’s knowledge of Sophocles, and especially The Trachiniae, may have been more extensive than previously imagined.

in Thomas Heywood and the classical tradition
The open structure of The Silver Age
Yves Peyré

The Ages plays are remarkable for their dramatisation of classical myth and lavish use of spectacle. However, Thomas Heywood did not consider that they should be reduced to a show. From his peculiar combination of William Caxton and the classics, myth and mythography, he meant to draw a coherent poetic design. Of the five plays, The Silver Age seems the most heterogeneously assembled and provides a field to test the plausibility of some unifying design based on Heywood’s understanding of classical myth. This chapter looks at the play from the perspective of Heywood’s interest in mythographic compendia such as Natale Conti’s Mythologia, and traces how he interwove their multiple versions of individual myths (Hercules, Proserpina) with material from Ovid, Claudian and other classical authors. It shows how a seemingly episodic assembling of diversified material harbours a mesh of echoes, ironic associations and startling collisions that bear evidence of a polyphonic imaginative pattern.

in Thomas Heywood and the classical tradition
Oenone and Paris
Katherine Heavey

This chapter examines Oenone and Paris (1594), an epyllion attributed to T. H., and generally thought to be Thomas Heywood’s earliest published work. The poem is discussed in relation to circulating versions of the Trojan myth (Greek, Latin and vernacular) and to Heywood’s later Trojan works, Troia Britanica and 1 The Iron Age. The poem has received attention for its use of rhetorical devices, and its relationship to Virgilian and particularly Shakespearean antecedents. Rather than mimicking Venus and Adonis, T. H.’s adaptation reshapes his classical and early modern models, revealing his own expectations of his readership, and his commitment to entertaining and challenging these readers. The chapter posits Oenone and Paris as a complex experiment with the legend of Troy. Drawing on Ovid, Lucian and Colluthus, the poem signals Heywood’s attentiveness to literary fashion and his lifelong interest in the intertextuality of this mythic story.

in Thomas Heywood and the classical tradition
Abstract only
Thomas Heywood and ‘the antique world’
Janice Valls-Russell and Tania Demetriou

This introduction reviews the critical state of play in the study of Thomas Heywood and the classical tradition, acknowledging the collection’s debt to the innovative work of M. L. Stapleton on Heywood’s translations of Ovid, Richard Rowland’s dedicated studies of the author and the edition of Troia Britanica coordinated by Yves Peyré. It also explores Heywood’s idiosyncratic classicism across his long career. A discussion of A Woman Killed with Kindness and The Rape of Lucrece shows that Heywood’s non-classical plays can be productively read through a classical lens, and suggests the crucial interaction between his classical and non-classical oeuvre. Heywood’s very diverse genres, we argue – translation, drama, poetry, compendia, pageants, panegyrics and pamphlets – are porous, and his classical creativity is a thread that runs through them. Classical interests also forge telling connections across Heywood’s different creative periods and offer an illuminating perspective on his authorial self-fashioning. Beginning by playing with myth in an epyllion (like many contemporaries), he increasingly turned himself into a distinctive vernacular humanist for whom myth became a way of thinking: educating a wider audience, moralising about society, writing about past and present, and perhaps above all sharing the pleasure of stories.

in Thomas Heywood and the classical tradition
Mythographic complexities in 1 Iron Age
Charlotte Coffin

While Thomas Heywood was a fine classicist, his staging of the Trojan War in 1 Iron Age relied on non-Homeric sources, especially William Caxton’s The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye (1473/74). After considering mythological scholarship and literary historiography, the discussion focuses on Recuyell’s influence, providing a medieval, retrospective, pessimistic viewpoint on Troy that Heywood translated into the play’s obsession with predictions and posterity. Finally, the chapter traces how Heywood handled the contradictions arising both from within Caxton’s collection and from his combination of it with Homer’s Iliad and Ovid’s Heroides and Metamorphoses. While he reverted to classical sources to supplement Recuyell, his interweaving is not seamless. Heywood was both learned and experienced enough to have deliberately introduced such jarring juxtapositions, which were part of his poetics. In 1 Iron Age, they may also invite the spectator and reader to take a critical look at classical culture and heroism.

in Thomas Heywood and the classical tradition
Yves Peyré

An experienced craftsman, Thomas Heywood was aware of generic requirements and expectations. Yet he also liked to confront different discourses, to fuse them or make them jolt against one another. When inspired by the stories of Antiquity, his writing involves acts of remembering, through dismembering and blending. This chapter considers how his composition, combining segmentation and selection with imaginative connexions, reflects reading experiences, which can be partly reconstituted from his system of borrowings and quotations in such works as Gynaikeion and The Hierarchie of the Blessed Angells (1635), as well as plays such as 1 Iron Age. Close readings of Heywood’s account of the Amazons, or the fate of Pyrene, reveal a knowledge of mythographic treatises, compilations and commonplace books, alongside classical authors and contemporaries. His mythographic readings structure his way of thinking about myth which, as his handling of themes like birth-giving suggests, is not devoid of empathy for women.

in Thomas Heywood and the classical tradition