Inspired by Les Énervés de Jumièges by Évariste-Vital Luminais, Axel Karlsson Rixon exhibited Mobilité Mémorable / Memorable Mobility at the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Rouen (France) in 2018. The exhibition included installations and photographs. In this interview, Axel Karlsson Rixon recalls their experience visiting migration sites in Northern France and the ‘Jungle’ of Calais. They also reflect on the water imagery and ocean theme in their work. Their voyages and discoveries have been sources of inspiration for such projects as Lumières Nordiques. Inspired by the theme of migration, Axel Karlsson Rixon also balances the role of the artist as activist, and the question of the place of artists in political debates is raised. Axel Karlsson Rixon actively engages in voluntary work.
The authors’ data reveal variation in how local civilian populations perceive
the behaviour of different violent non-state actors that operate in the same
context. The chapter explores the reasons for this perception. It provides
an intriguing entry point for recognition-based analyses of violent
non-state actors. The authors highlight that a successful transition,
aiming to construct effective (civilian) state institutions in marginalised
regions, requires understanding pre-peace accord relations between armed
actors and local communities. They ponder whether the different experiences
of guerrilla and paramilitary order in Colombia are indicative of differing
effects of vertical and horizontal organisational structures and behavioural
patterns of the armed group on the ability to recognise and be recognised.
It is argued that in the context of non-state order during armed conflict
(particularly when the line between crime and conflict is blurred),
recognition is contingent on the existence of institutions. The
organisational structure and behavioural patterns that are held responsible
for enabling a degree of mutual recognition between armed actor and local
community are of two types: the coherence of the internal organisational
structure of the armed actor enables procedures for recognition by the
community (they know who to talk to); and the space the armed actor allows
for local communities to express their grievances indicates recognition of
the community by the armed actor (providing space for input). Hence,
post-conflict institutions should fulfil those two conditions: coherent,
enduring structures (organisation) and space for voicing grievances that
results in action (input and responsiveness).
Chapter 3 considers the senses in which Nietzsche can be classed as a naturalist, and then examines the functions of the will to power as the grounds for an immanent normative conception of life, as well as an objective conception of moral values. The chapter seeks to establish an objective normative conception of life based on Nietzsche's philosophy of the future. The concept of life continuance is added to the Nietzschean lexicon after a critical consideration of his concepts, as expressing both the individualist and collectivist tropes in his philosophy.
Chapter 4 primarily focuses on a number of British films from the 2000s which emphasised the life of the body rather than the mind, privileging the sexual over the cerebral and favouring explicitness over implicitness. These were films continuing some of the ‘low comedy’ traditions developed in the Carry On series and sexploitation films of the 1970s (which will be discussed in the opening section of the chapter). Films with titles such as Sex Lives of the Potato Men and Dogging – a Love Story were clearly meant to be provocative and controversial in certain ways, and the chapter will consider how they use comedic strategies to present characters’ sexual desires in a new and occasionally lurid light. Michael Winterbottom’s The Look of Love sought to investigate how Paul Raymond helped to bring about significant changes in the sexual culture of post-war Britain, particularly around the ‘male gaze’ of female nudity. 9 Songs aimed to continue that process by featuring a male and female actor having real sex on screen in a feature-length narrative aimed at general exhibition in cinemas. This latter film is compared and contrasted with On Chesil Beach, which details how a couple’s sexual inexperience and incompatibility leads to their separating for ever after their first night as husband and wife. The films in this chapter therefore offer a unique and stimulating look at sexual matters in a British cultural and cinematic context from distinctive and imaginative viewpoints.
Edith May Fry and Australian expatriate art in the 1920s
During the 1920s, in the minds of many Australians, Britain was still considered ‘Home’, and London the centre of the Empire. Australian artists were not fully accepted in the British art scene and, although they still identified as Australians, were often ostracised by their homeland. Australian cultural custodians at the time considerably marginalised expatriatism in favour of nationalistic and patriarchal narratives, restricting the definition of Australian art as being strictly produced within the geographical borders of Australia. However, as early as the 1920s, a number of individuals sought to assert Australian art as existing beyond the geographical boundaries of Australia, and defended the work of Australian expatriate artists who travelled to Europe. Among them, Edith Fry championed the tradition of Antipodean expatriatism, publishing articles and organising exhibitions to promote the achievements of Australian artists abroad. The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate how she stressed the significance of expatriate art in the construction of transnational culture, bringing the role of expatriate artists as agents into the network of commerce, experience, and representation of modernity, and as creating an art that transcends national boundaries.
This chapter examines the role played by the concept of ‘empire’ in the historiography of the Norman world. Already well-established by the 1970s, the idea of a ‘Norman Empire’ was further developed by Pierre Aubè in his Les Empires normandes d’Orient of 1991. Nonetheless, it remains controversial, since a sufficiently meaningful definition has never been provided. After reviewing more recent developments in Norman historiography, the chapter considers the relationships between centres of power and historiographic writings in Norman Italy in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. It observes that the Normans had to fill a gap in legitimacy in the eyes of their age’s other players, and that this was partly done through the commissioning of historical works such as Geoffrey Malaterra’s De rebus gestis Rogerii. An examination of the prologue of this work provides a glimpse of a deliberate policy of memory formation. The chapter concludes by observing that the concept of ‘empire’, though a well-established historiographical tradition, does not find adequate support in the sources for the Normans in Italy. As an analytical tool for making sense of the quick success of the Norman expansionism, empire is too imprecise to be applied without qualification in every land affected by the Norman diaspora.
This chapter provides a review of British historians’ work on Norman Italy from 1912 to 1976. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the major account in English of the arrival of the Normans in southern Italy was still that of Edward Gibbon. This would change with the appearance of Edmund Curtis and Evelyn Jamison. Curtis’s work on Norman Italy is concentrated in his book Roger of Sicily and the Normans in Lower Italy 1016–1154 (1912). Although not based on archival research, this was a thoughtful attempt to grapple with a neglected area, and offered valuable insights. Jamison, meanwhile, published extensively on Norman Italy, focusing on constitutional and administrative arrangements. She collected invaluable archival material and inspired a number of students to follow in her footsteps, notably Marjorie Chibnall and Dione Clementi. A question that looms large in this period is to what extent there was a shared Norman identity throughout Europe. D. C. Douglas promoted the view of a common achievement, but he was strongly challenged by R. H. C. Davis. One final important figure was John Julius Cooper, who published (under the name of John Julius Norwich) a pair of accessible popular histories. The chapter concludes by briefly considering developments after the period under discussion. Since 1976 there has been a growing recognition that the history of medieval Italy does not stop somewhere a little south of Rome. Moreover, there has been greater interest in looking at the peninsula as a whole and thinking about long-term continuities.
The Vitae of Italo-Greek saints (twelfth and thirteenth centuries) and the negotiation of local identities
The question of how the Italo-Greek communities of southern Italy and Sicily perceived and responded to the cultural changes introduced by the Norman conquests is important for a deeper understanding of the society of Norman Italy. The Vitae of the Italo-Greek saints of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries can contribute to this avenue of research, since hagiography was the literary genre par excellence for communicating the hopes, fears and expectations engendered by their encounter with the Normans. This chapter closely examines four Vitae, those of Luke, bishop of Isola Capo Rizzuto (1035/40‒1114), Bartholomew of Simeri (d. 1130), John Theristis (tenth‒eleventh centuries) and Cyprian of Calamizzi (c. 1210‒15). In doing so, it reveals how the Italo-Greek communities sought to redefine their self-perception, strengthen the bonds between themselves and converse with the new rulers – in other words, to negotiate their identities.
Robert Guiscard’s blockade of Bari, begun in the summer of 1068 and enduring for two years, eight months, was a watershed in the Norman conquest of southern Italy and Sicily. The complicated campaign to take the key port city involved a naval blockade of the harbour along with a siege of the heavily defended landward walls. It was pivotal to the seizure of the Italian Mezzogiorno by the House of Hauteville for a multitude of reasons, which this chapter examines in detail. First of all, Robert recognised that he required ships and experienced seamen in order to capture Palermo and complete the conquest of Sicily. Commandeering Bari’s naval assets was the quickest way to develop such a necessary naval capability. Secondly, it provided him with an added incentive to quell the stubborn insurgencies among his own Norman nobility, which plagued Apulia in particular. Thirdly, Bari was the last Byzantine bastion in southern Italy; capturing it removed the remaining Greek threat to Norman dominance of Apulia and Calabria. Fourthly, the seizure of Bari enabled Robert to establish Apulia as a springboard for anticipated expeditions to the Balkan Peninsula. Finally, it brought the Normans of the south their first significant naval victories, while advancing the evolution of Norman naval tactics and strategy that would be crucial to future campaigns. Drawing on both Greek and Latin sources, this chapter demonstrates how one pivotal battle interconnected with a plethora of wider, significant transitions within the Mediterranean.
Promoting inclusivity in the mediation of the Intergovernmental Authority
on Development in South Sudan
This chapter aims to examine possible processes of recognition,
mis-recognition and/or non-recognition in the process of including an armed
non-state actor (ANSA) in a peace mediation process. In particular, it
examines the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement – In Opposition (SPLM-IO) in
the mediation of the Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in
South Sudan from December 2013 to the signing of the peace agreement in
August 2015. The mandate of the mediation and its assessment of the
conflict enabled the recognition of the grievances put forward by the
SPLM-IO and eventually its formal establishment and inclusion in the peace
process. However, the simultaneous inclusion of unarmed non-state groups,
the cultural predispositions of elites in South Sudan and the institutional
identity of the mediating organisation, IGAD, limited the level of
recognition given to the SPLM-IO. This also reinforced its preference for
continuing violence and breaking ceasefire agreements alongside its
participation in the mediation. Furthermore, the mainly bilateral treatment
of the conflict in 2013, inherited from the previous IGAD mediation process,
perpetuated the non-recognition of other ANSAs, which contributed to the
violence in 2013 and the division of the SPLM into two, as well as the
recurrence of violence and the proliferation of ANSAs from 2016. The
analysis draws on the concept of mis-recognition to further nuance the
relationship between inclusivity in mediation processes and the recurrence
of violent conflict, and on 128 expert interviews which the author conducted
with African local and regional actors during her field research trips in
2017 and 2018.