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Joe Earle, Cahal Moran, and Zach Ward-Perkins

This chapter argues that we need new political and economic institutions which are participatory, inclusive and accessible and sets out some ideas about how this can be achieved. These can be the catalyst for the development of a popular democratic culture of public participation in economic discussion and decision making.

in The econocracy
Abstract only
Joe Earle, Cahal Moran, and Zach Ward-Perkins
in The econocracy
Joe Earle, Cahal Moran, and Zach Ward-Perkins

Chapter 5 sets out a vision of a pluralist, critical and liberal economics education. However, it also shows how higher education has been reshaped in ways which makes positive reform increasingly difficult and set out a number of practical reforms which could be implemented within the current system.

in The econocracy
Joe Earle, Cahal Moran, and Zach Ward-Perkins

Chapter 4 details the history of how the discipline of economics came to be so narrow and the more recent student led movements to reform it. It also includes a critique of the new CORE syllabus.

in The econocracy
Open Access (free)
Oonagh McDonald

This chapter covers the leading theories of the markets. The dominant theory of the Efficient Market Hypothesis distracted regulators, market participants and central bankers from paying attention to market prices as signals or from recognizing the existence of bubbles in the housing market, as Alan Greenspan admitted. The behavioural theorists shift the emphasis away from examining trends in the market data and developing models to explain them, to the behaviour of investors in the market, or rather to the factors influencing their behavior. There are two building blocks of behavioural finance: one is that in an economy where rational and irrational traders interact, 'irrationality can have a substantial and long-term impact on prices'. The second building block is psychology. Swedburgh's paper is important in that it points out that trust underlies the smooth, or one might say, efficient functioning of the market.

in Lehman Brothers
Open Access (free)
Oonagh McDonald

Under its dramatic headline, 'Mayer Lehman's chaotic bankruptcy filing destroyed billions in value', the Wall Street Journal proclaimed that a 'less hurried Chapter 11 bankruptcy filing would have preserved tens of billions of dollars of value'. International derivative contracts were not the only problem. Its collapse resulted in over 75 separate and distinct bankruptcy proceedings immediately, and affected thousands of financial market participants through its wide range of contracts. It is important to focus on the procedures set out by International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) and to consider what contribution the Master Agreements were able to make to sorting out the enormous number and the wide range of derivatives, running into trillions of dollars. In the aftermath of the financial crisis, regulators turned their attention to capital, liquidity and supervision, in order to prevent the failures of what then became known as 'systemically important financial institutions' (SIFIs).

in Lehman Brothers
Open Access (free)
Oonagh McDonald

On 10 September 2008, Dick Fuld presented what would be the firm's last earnings report, announcing the loss of $3.9bn, the second quarterly loss that had increased from the previous quarter's loss of $2.8bn. It also released some plans and proposed actions, which included the increase in total stockholders' equity, spin-off of certain commercial real estate assets, and a potential deal with a Korean sovereign wealth fund. All of the proposed actions were no more than plans, as opposed to completed deals or agreements. Just two days after Mayer Lehman filed for Chapter 11, Barclays announced that it would acquire Lehman Brothers North American investment banking and capital markets operations and supporting infrastructure. That included Lehman Brothers' New York headquarters and two data centres, all for $1.75bn, a price which the New York Times described as a 'fire sale' and which was much less than Lehman expected.

in Lehman Brothers
Oonagh McDonald

Mayer Lehman Brothers' long history began with three brothers, immigrants from Germany, setting up a small shop in Alabama, selling groceries and dry goods to local cotton farmers. Their business soon evolved into cotton trading. Dick Fuld made a series of acquisitions, designed to lessen Lehman's dependence on fixed-income trading, and focus attention on mergers and acquisitions, investment banking and raising capital. He began the process of restructuring the company so that it consisted of three major operating units: investment banking, equities and fixed income. He refocused the company's activities on high-margin business such as mergers and acquisitions, bringing in experienced senior staff to manage the business. The description of the company's activities reflected both the move away from fixed income trading, and Fuld's ambitions for Lehman Brothers.

in Lehman Brothers
Open Access (free)
January to September 2008
Oonagh McDonald

In its financial report for the fiscal year ending 30 November 2007, Mayer Lehman Brothers reported record revenues of nearly $60bn, and record earnings in excess of $4bn. Lehman's March 2008 results were revealed that its liquidity pool had increased from $35bn to $54bn. To bolster liquidity and to help the financial markets function more effectively, the Federal Reserve established the Primary Dealer Credit Facility. Before the announcement of its third quarter results, Lehman's shares were very volatile, falling by 13 per cent on one day and rising by 16 per cent on another. The Consolidated Supervised Entity Programme, designed to ensure that a firm could withstand the loss of its unsecured financing for up to a year, was abruptly ended on 26 September 2008. The downfall of Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers, and Merrill Lynch was not completely due to the regulators; they brought their downfall on themselves.

in Lehman Brothers
Oonagh McDonald

The Lehman Chapter 11 bankruptcy case represents the 'largest, most complex, multi-faceted and far-reaching bankruptcy case ever filed in the United States'. After the bankruptcy process completed, there was no further investigation of the Examiner's conclusions about the 'colorable' claims. This chapter explores the main issues cited for the cause of the bankruptcy and reasons why Mayer Lehman conducted its business without proper oversight. To hide the extent to which Lehman Brothers Holding Incorporated (LBHI) was leveraged, the company developed and used a version of Repo 105 and Repo 108 in 2001. But it used the device much more extensively in 2007 and 2008, as focus on the leverage ratios of investment banks increased. The Examiner appointed by the Bankruptcy Court found sufficient evidence to support that 'Lehman did not appropriately consider market-based yield when valuing Principal Transactions Group (PTG) assets in the second and third quarters of 2008.'

in Lehman Brothers