Chapter 1 provides an in-depth overview of cybersecurity knowledge drawn from disciplines including politics and international relations, law and computer science. The first part of this chapter is structured around the organising themes of definition, threat and response and provides an important foundation upon which subsequent theoretical and empirical work is based. This chapter identifies a broad homogeneity across this knowledge and demonstrates how this operates within a wider national security framing that reproduces the features, tropes and tactics found therein. However, the second part of this chapter goes beyond the ‘problem solving’ conventions of cybersecurity knowledge and reveals a smaller body of critical and broadly constructivist research that investigates the same object but in a manner that eschews the commonplace agenda. By highlighting and exploring this research two things are achieved: first, my own study is situated within a wider academic body of work that sets out to investigate cybersecurity by utilising different ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions; second, by revealing this heterogeneity I project a path forward for my own theoretical and empirical work that recognises the importance of a broader inter subjective process of knowledge construction that requires engagement with alternative sources, such as the internet security industry.
The Introduction provides the broad context for the study as well as laying out the motivations, research aims and research questions. The Introduction provides an initial justification for the decision to focus on this particular aspect of the internet security industry (developed further in Chapter 2) and also offers reflections on the method used, including which companies were studied and how the corpus was compiled. Finally, the chapter concludes with a breakdown of the book’s organisation, including what each chapter is looking to contribute to the overall objective.
Chapter 2 provides the theoretical framework for the book’s empirical analysis and clarifies a number of theoretical and conceptual tools that are central to this book’s objectives and contributions. Power and security are two such concepts, and the chapter begins by clarifying the conceptualisation of power outlined by Michel Foucault that is adopted in this study by elaborating upon one of his ideas: power/knowledge. From here the chapter hones in on the ‘third modality’ of power, that of governmentality, to demonstrate how this functions across society and the role that the security dispositif plays in allowing this form of power to function. Prior to embarking on the empirical analysis, this chapter’s final section ties together the work on power, governance and security with established work on both ‘epistemic communities’ and ‘security professionals’. I elaborate on these theorisations to link the productive functioning of power with the role particular ‘privileged’ experts play within the dispositif to give meaning to the phenomenon of security, sediment certain understandings, prioritise particular responses and foreclose alternative thinking. It is in this final section where I most explicitly make the argument for the need to conduct constructivist research into private security industry discourse.
This book explores the relationship between peacebuilding and dance, including
insights dance provides on key debates around peace and conflict. It
investigates the practice of a dance-focused peacebuilding programme and tells
the important story of youth who engage in dance for peacebuilding in Colombia,
the Philippines and the United States. In doing so, the book analyses the ways
in which this programme fits into the broader global context. Incorporating
participant voices, critical political analysis and reflections on dance
practice, this book reveals important implications and nuances regarding
arts-based peace initiatives that can also contribute to reflections on
peacebuilding more broadly. In particular, investigating the role of empathy and
embodiment further contributes to expanding perspectives on peacebuilding. As
such, this book contributes to theory and practice while building critical
understanding of the politics of integrating dance into peacebuilding. By
exploring the politics of dancing peace, including benefits and challenges, and
local and global connections, this book highlights and analyses key issues in
arts-based peacebuilding approaches. As the global community continues to seek
pathways to peace that are inclusive of people across differences – such as
race, religion, gender, culture, age and locality – and that improve upon,
supplement or replace existing dominant approaches, this book provides a
valuable in-depth analysis and recommendations for practice.
To date, practitioner self-care is underexplored in Peace and Conflict
Studies, even though peacebuilders themselves could benefit immensely from
further investigation in this area, which could in turn strengthen the depth
and quality of their work as facilitators for peace. Indeed, the research
for this book has suggested that participants had an opportunity to
experience themselves in ways that enabled them to express a deeper sense of
self-understanding, embodiment and strength to go on with their work.
Chapter 5 considers how, in the midst of difficult work in conflict-ridden
circumstances, peacebuilders have embraced the opportunities that dance
provides to relieve stress and re-engage with their bodies. At the same
time, acknowledging that diverse bodies may be placed differently in
settings of conflict, the chapter also interrogates the prospects and
challenges posed by gender and age norms in particular sites of
peacebuilding. It also suggests that dance has broader implications in
peacebuilding because it can help enable a more reflective stance for
considering conflict. In this sense, it has to potential offer new and
creative directions for pursuing peace.
Chapter 4 explores the concept of practising peace though a deep
investigation of one set of activities involving the use of mirroring
movements. Cultivating empathy has been identified as one crucial element of
building peace. As researchers have established, empathy is essential to the
restructuring of relationships after violence. Mirroring is a
well-established dance activity that is used in many settings and contexts,
including theatre, dance therapy, dance education and community dance, and
simple variations are included in some mainstream peacebuilding resources as
icebreakers. As seen in the three case studies across cultures, peace must
be practised, and the process of mirroring provides opportunities for this
by inviting interpersonal exchange and the building of kinaesthetic, or
felt, empathy, which provides avenues through which to see, understand and
feel others across difference. In addition to the potential of empathy
within peacebuilding, this chapter discusses the politics of empathy and its
challenges in arts-based peacebuilding.
Chapter 1 makes the case for considering dance in relation to peacebuilding,
based on an interrogation of existing research from across a range of fields
of study. The chapter explores how growing interest and research in
arts-based peacebuilding highlight the importance of utilising multiple
pathways in the pursuit of peace. It also examines how, globally, dance and
music are recognised as important facilitators of social cohesion and the
creation and expression of culture. Recognising these components, the
chapter considers theories and practices of dance and peacebuilding,
including discussions of embodiment and empathy, among other key relevant
concepts; this exploration provides a context for understanding how and
where dance and peacebuilding meet. The chapter argues for the recognition
of the importance of the role of dance in encouraging diverse forms of
communication, in building relationships across difference, and in engaging
the participation of diverse actors in local, national and international
forums. Finally, the field is outlined by exploring a basic typology of six
categories proposed to understand efforts at dance-based peacebuilding
(therapeutic; artist-led social change or protest; community-led social
change or protest; collective forms; educational; and diplomatic).
This chapter introduces the book’s main purpose: exploring the relationship
between dance and peacebuilding in pluralist societies. It highlights
instructive insights dance can provide when reflecting on existing theories
and debates around peace and conflict. The research deepens the
understanding of the roles the arts, and dance in particular, play in
peacebuilding. Building on existing work in International Relations, Peace
and Conflict Studies, and Dance, as well as complementary areas of study
such as anthropology, neuroscience and law, this chapter sets out how the
book considers the work of a non-governmental organisation and its
participants deploying dance for youth peacebuilding through case studies
across three contexts – Colombia, the Philippines and the United States.
These case studies include multiple delivery sites of the dance programme in
different contexts of violence or conflict and varied approaches to peace.
The introduction previews how investigating the application of a dance-based
peacebuilding programme across these three case studies allows us to
consider nuance and context, as well as commonalities across the locales.
Chapter 3 considers the creation and sharing of ‘hub dances’ – group dance
exchange activities – across and between programme sites, to investigate
what dance can tell us about local and/or global approaches to
peacebuilding, including how the two are defined, interact or may
co-constitute one another. It also examines the political ramifications of
this co-creation and/or interchange. The hub dances aim to serve as a
vehicle for cross-cultural moments of exchange and to provide opportunities
for (re)creating identity in multiple ways that can support peacebuilding.
At the same time, the use of hub dances also prompts further examination of
the different cultural contexts in which conflict occurs and the tensions
between the homogenisation of dance ideas paired with individual or group
freedoms, and the possibilities of instilling stereotypes or being valued
for difference. Likewise, the chapter considers the ways in which the
creation, practice, and exchange of hub dances enacts meaning around the
identities of self, others and the community, and how this relates to the
creation of broader social change for peacebuilding across difference.
Chapter 2 discusses the role of young people in peacebuilding and the ways in
which dance plays a part in this process. Previous research has identified
the importance and political significance of young people in peacebuilding.
Simultaneously, international organisations such as the United Nations have
made steps towards increasing the opportunities and support for young people
in peacebuilding endeavours, locally and globally, including through the
passage of UN Security Council Resolution 2250 on Youth, Peace and Security
in 2015. Despite these efforts, and the extent to which youth are immersed
in conflict both as recipients of violence and as perpetrators, young people
remain on the sidelines of peace initiatives and are not sufficiently
recognised and engaged in policy, theory or practice. The research conducted
for this book suggests that dance can constitute an effective, inclusive
pathway to support youth participation in peacebuilding, especially when
incorporating elements of peer leadership. At the same time, the data
gathered across the three case studies highlights the importance of
including options for peace, reconciliation and social transformation that
are age appropriate, gender sensitive, culturally relevant and flexible.