This chapter analyses Jamaican sociologist and cultural theorist, Stuart Hall, who was one of the pioneers of the “Birmingham School of Cultural Studies”. She assesses how Hall incorporated issues of race, gender, and hegemony into cultural studies, and how culture, race, and ethnicity contributed to creating the politics of Black Diasporic identities.
This chapter examines the Pan-Africanism of former South African president Thabo Mbeki, comparing him to Kwame Nkrumah, before examining his efforts at building institutions of the African Union and engaging the African Diaspora in America, the Caribbean, and Brazil.
This chapter examines the African-American intellectual’s contributions to the movement, especially between 1919 and 1945 when he played a leading role in the five Pan-African Congresses in Paris, London, New York, and Manchester, before moving to Kwame Nkrumah’s Ghana to spend the last years of his life.
This chapter examines the Pan-African contributions of Guyanese scholar-activist Walter Rodney, a pioneering member of the Dar es Salaam School of Political Economy, who in his famous 1972 treatise How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, traced the roots of African underdevelopment to European colonialism.
This book is about the making of London in the period 1660-1720. This period saw the beginnings of a new understanding of built form and a transitional stage in the transmission and articulation of that form in design procedures. The book discusses the processes and methods by which the development of the city was financed and organized. It considers the leading developers and questions to what extent the traditional model which attributes responsibility for the development of London to aristocratic landlords is a viable one. The book looks at the structure of the building industry and assesses how it was adapted to meet the demands of the production of speculative housing on a scale and at a pace never previously experienced. It outlines how concepts concerning the form of the new terraces were communicated and transmitted through the building chain and finally realized in the built product. The book focuses on the discipline of architectural history and is primarily concerned with architectural and urban design issues. It talks about drawings as the sum of an architect's oeuvre, rather than the buildings, or the drawings and the buildings together. The book provides information on the style and layout of the new developments and explores the extent to which they can be categorized as a 'modernizing' phenomenon.
Dan Cruickshank has characterized the constructor of the Georgian speculative house as a builder rather than a craftsman. This chapter investigates who the craftsman was and the ways in which he operated in speculative development, an area in which architects were not involved as designers, although sometimes as developers and investors. It necessarily concentrates upon practice among the higher ranks of the building trades, although more information about the divisions and structures within those trades is needed for a fuller picture. Linda Clarke insists, as the result of a rigidly deterministic Marxist mode of analysis, that the building tradesman remained an artisan; full capitalism, based in her view. The master builder or building contractor is usually seen as a nineteenth century phenomenon, with Thomas Cubbitt in the early nineteenth century being seen as the first of a new breed.
This chapter outlines what is meant by the term 'design'. The central question for design practice in early modern England, as for building practice, is the extent to which there was a separation of design and production. Very little attempt has been made to understand drawings in terms of the contemporary approach to design, or to consider in a broader sense what their purpose might have been. John Harris utilized the techniques of the drawings specialist to catalogue the collection there and established architectural drawing studies as a unique subject area. John Harris's Introduction to the Inigo Jones catalogue contains some interesting and perceptive notes on the direction that drawing studies have taken. Even at the highest levels of architecture it is possible that drawing skills were neither necessary nor common.