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The anatomy of a bitter divorce battle
Matt Qvortrup

This chapter pertains to the United Kingdom European Union (EU) membership referendum in 2016. It first traces the last days events which finally led to David Cameron announcing his resignation in the morning of 24 June 2016. Then, the chapter discusses the initial days of the campaign when a poll the 18 February 2016 Daily Telegraph showed 54 per cent for Remain and a mere 46 per cent for Leave. The signs of erosion of the Remain group were seen in the 16 March budget, which contained cuts to disability benefits as well as tax cuts for the wealthier. Wavering voters were not responding to the predictions of economic gloom presented by David Cameron and his allies. On 7 June, sensing that the economic argument had been exhausted, the UKIP leader NIgel Farage told ITV News, 'there is more to life than GDP'.

in Government by referendum
Ben Cohen and Eve Garrard

An article by Mark Mazower for the journal World Affairs characterizes the concept of humanitarian intervention as 'dying if not dead'. Mazower's approval of the demise of humanitarian interventionism has been made explicit. There's a 'new realism', he says, that is welcome; again, the 'new maturity in international relations' is to be viewed positively. Since it is an elementary truth that an intervention that fails or makes things worse will not effect a rescue of those in need of one, accounts of the principle of humanitarian intervention invariably emphasize that unless there is a good prospect of success, intervention cannot be justified. But Mazower writes as if part of the new and welcome 'pragmatism', 'realism', 'maturity', is the wisdom 'that without willing the means, intervention leads to political and moral failure'.

in The Norman Geras Reader
The 1953 Italian fair at Galeries Lafayette
Florence Brachet Champsaur

Drawing on the archives of the Galeries Lafayette, this chapter presents a case study of the 1953 Italian fair, a commercial event offering Parisian customers the very best Italian imports, from food to textiles. The case study allows us to assess the extent of influence on the French department store of American management practices and the building of a new European commercial network. This case study of the 1953 Galeries Lafayette Italian fair is a suitable starting-point for the historical study of those fashion professionals working behind the scenes. In addition, the chapter covers the post 1945 period, a less thoroughly researched moment in the historiography of retailing. It offers an opportunity to respond to the call of Victoria de Grazia, who underlined that 'the evolution of modern systems of distribution is astonishingly understudied'. The success of R. H. Macy's Italian promotion had a powerful impact on Galeries Lafayette.

in European fashion
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Mike Buckle and John Thompson

Central banks have achieved greater prominence since 2008 as a result of their role in bailing out banks following the financial crisis. This chapter examines the role of central banks in the financial system in principle and discusses whether, in fact, this role is necessary for the smooth running of such systems. It addresses the question of why it should be necessary for the financial system to have a 'super-bank' responsible for the operation of the financial system. This includes consideration of the objectives of central banks, their role in the operation of monetary policy and their function as a lender of last resort. The chapter also examines the part they may play in the regulation of the financial system and whether they should be independent of the government. Against this background it looks in more detail at the role of the Bank of England.

in The UK financial system (fifth edition)
Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

The 1980s engagement of historians with poststructuralism was referred to as the 'cultural turn', and this began as an involvement mainly with the linguistic theories. This chapter discusses the main ideas of poststructuralism. For historians, many poststructuralist topics and methods of investigation are a legacy of the work of Foucault. Much of Foucault's work engaged with the marginalized groups in society. Foucault broke from earlier histories in his rejection of meta-narratives, overarching theories of human development through time, and of historical continuity. Foucault has also been widely criticized for historical inaccuracies. The chapter provides an extract from the City of Dreadful Delight, which is characteristic of poststructuralist history, to show the intersection of knowledge and power, and the subversive and contradictory nature of popular discourse.

in The houses of history
New horizons and energies
Shang Hui

Critic Shang Hui diagnoses a resurgence of Chinese printmaking in the early part of the twenty-first century. Dominated by the woodcut since the 1930s, Chinese printmaking was subject to the demands of the ideology of the communist state until the beginning of reforms in the 1980s and so, in printmaking, this translated into the adoption of techniques other than the woodcut.

in Perspectives on contemporary printmaking
The cases of Kaihara and Japan Blue, 1970–2015
Rika Fujioka and Ben Wubs

In the 1950s and 1960s, blue jeans became a symbol of youth protests against the conformity of their parents. Vintage and designer denim became an important part of the global fashion system. The two case studies in this chapter draw on interviews with the CEOs of Kaihara and Japan Blue and documents from both the companies. The examples fit perfectly within a comparative, historical study of Japanese premium denim and jeans. The case studies demonstrate that producing denim, the fabric, is a different story and needs a different strategy from producing jeans, the garment. They are also closely related because of interdependence between the two industries; Kaihara, for example, dyes Japan Blue's woven cotton. An in-depth historical analysis of these two cases provides valuable insight into the historical competitiveness of denim and jeans manufacturing in Japan over the last five decades.

in European fashion
Matt Qvortrup

This conclusion presents some closing remarks on the preceding chapters of the book. The book has presented the briefest of historical outlines of how referendums have been used in Britain and abroad, and in doing so, it has implicitly presented some of the arguments for and against this institution. Between 1920 and 1960, there was little reason to have referendums in Britain as compared to constitutional referendums in Denmark and Ireland which were held in the 1950s. The referendum campaign in 1975 challenged the tribalism that had characterised the politics of the United Kingdom. The Brexit referendum and the referendum on the alternative vote electoral system saw spirited debate as well as disinformation on both sides. However, one cannot reject the referendum in general just because one disagrees with the way David Cameron blundered into to calling one.

in Government by referendum
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Kevern Verney

This chapter presents some concluding thoughts on black civil rights discussed in this book. During the 1950s and 1960s the spread of more liberal attitudes and values, reflected in the rise of Martin Luther King and the post-war Civil Rights Movement, inspired scholars to investigate the African American past. Scholarly debate on the African American experience from the 1890s through to the early 1920s gathered momentum with fresh studies on the spread of racial segregation and black migration to the cities. The rise of feminism and growth in popularity of women's history in the closing decades of the twentieth century prompted academic researchers to pay more attention to the issue of gender in all periods of African American history. Whether writing about the 1890s or the 1980s historians began to recognize the importance of class divisions in African American communities and the civil rights struggle.

in The Debate on Black Civil Rights in America
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Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

This chapter presents some concluding thoughts on the exploration of historical theories. It includes William Sewell's and Joan Wallach Scott's discussions of their intellectual journeys to demonstrate the way in which individual historians, as well as schools of history, develop in their thinking and practice over time. Scott and Sewell contextualize their development, consider what drove the changes in their historical practice, and reveal something of their own historical subjectivities. Global history and world history seem likely to continue to attempt to break through a previously Eurocentric view of the world. Global history authors, considering a longer time span, have included 'natural history' as well as human history. A trend to considering the history of the environment, perhaps triggered by anxieties about climate change, extends the natural history approach. Historians have continued to develop new approaches, so that historiography is continually invigorated.

in The houses of history