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Abstract only
Edward Ashbee

This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book. The focus of this book is on Donald Trump and his campaign. The book argues that the Trump campaign, like earlier populist insurgencies, can be explained in part by considering some defining features of US political culture and, in particular, attitudes towards government. If we look beyond cultural factors, it also argues that in overall terms, several factors were of particular importance during election year. The book argues furthermore that another factor, which is not usually included in discussions of electoral politics, should be brought into the picture. It explains that each of these overlapping factors contributed to both Trump's victories on the path to the Republican nomination and his eventual capture of the presidency.

in The Trump revolt
Edward Ashbee

Because of name recognition and his status as a celebrity, Donald Trump had very significant start-up advantages over other 'outsider' candidates such as Dr Ben Carson or Carly Fiorina. At the same time, the votes of those who opposed him were split between rival contenders and Trump was implicitly hailed, despite comments and claims that would have killed off any other candidacy, as a victor with the support of only about a third of the voters. Timing and sequencing and the order in which candidates withdrew from the race then played a part. Even at the end of the campaign, there were chance events that probably further damaged Hillary Clinton's chances of victory. Even if it is assumed that that all the votes would have been given to Clinton had the candidates not stood, analysis suggests it is likely that she would still have lost.

in The Trump revolt
Geoffrey K. Roberts

The creation of Land legislatures was of great relevance for the design of parliamentary structures for the new Federal Republic in 1949. This chapter describes the structures of the two chambers of the legislature of the Federal Republic: the Bundestag and the Bundesrat. The Bundestag, the lower chamber of the legislature of the Federal Republic of Germany, operates under relevant provisions of the Basic Law and under legislation such as the Electoral Law and the Party Law. The Bundesrat (Federal Council) is the most powerful second chamber in western Europe. It imports the 'federal' element to the legislative process, alongside the Bundestag's representation of the national 'popular' element. The chapter analyses the ways in which the functions of the legislature are carried out and examines the social composition of the Bundestag in relation to its representative function.

in German politics today (third edition)
Abstract only
Geoffrey K. Roberts

Political parties play a highly significant role in the political system of the Federal Republic of Germany. The type of democratic system the Federal Republic enjoys has been called as 'party government', a concept which includes the ideas that parties give coherence and direction to government through their policy programmes. This chapter describes the role of German political parties and the legal context within which political parties must act. The party system of the Federal Republic prior to reunification in 1990 consisted of four parties: Christian Democrats; Social Democratic Party; Free Democratic Party and Greens. The chapter discusses the development and the structure of the party system. Reunification had a relatively small effect on the structure of the party system. Since the introduction of the Party Law of 1967, parties have to ensure that their organisational structures and procedures comply with the standards set out in that legislation.

in German politics today (third edition)
Robert J. McKeever

This chapter examines the ways in which politics impinges upon judicial review and the various attempts that have been made to minimise or maximise the political potential of judicial review. It assesses the extent to which the political characteristics of judicial review demand that we view the U.S. Supreme Court primarily as a political body. The chapter explains the tradtional and modern views taken by the Court on judicial interpretation as well as the judicial interpretation of the statutes, and identifies two main judicial role philosophies, those of judicial selfrestraint and judicial activism. Political bodies, including the U.S. President and the U.S. Congress, try to control the process of appointing Justices, and try to influence the Court's deliberations and decisions on a case-by-case basis. So do interest groups. Although the Court's decisions are generally in tune with public opinion, there is little direct relationship between the Court and the people.

in The United States Supreme Court
Edward Ashbee

Populism has a particular place within the US political tradition. In the post-war period alone, there have been recurrent right-wing populist insurgencies. In the US, right-wing populism has been a recurrent and ingrained feature of the political process over a long period. In particular, the structural characteristics of the contemporary American state, and the ways in which these are perceived and understood by large numbers of people, particularly within the white population, add to and build upon long-held resentments about the legitimate place and efficacy of government. This chapter provides a detailed account of the structural characteristics of the American state that appear to be of particular significance in the shaping of attitudes. The structural characteristics explain why right-wing populism has been a significant and enduring feature of twentieth- and twenty-first century US politics and why populist attitudes can come to the forefront of politics.

in The Trump revolt
Constraints, compliance and impact
Robert J. McKeever

The U.S. Supreme Court relies on other branches of government to enforce its decisions, but such compliance may not be readily forthcoming. This chapter examines the politics of compliance and resistance in implementing Supreme Court decisions. There are formal mechanisms by which Congress can seek to overturn judicial interpretations of the Constitution of which they disapprove. Although the Court has the final word on the meaning of the Constitution and the policies it mandates, it is the attitudes, beliefs and actions of legislatures, executive branches, interest groups, legal scholars and citizens that form the substance of Court cases. The chapter enquires into the conditions that are likely to give rise to a serious effort to thwart the Court and engage in non-compliance. It presents the issue of abortion as a case study of compliance and impact, and briefly explains Gerald Rosenberg's rival concepts of dynamic court and constrained court.

in The United States Supreme Court
Tom Gallagher

The single currency was overtly designed to lock a newly united Germany into a common monetary union in which it would act in concert with countries possessing less powerful economies rather than dominate them outright. This chapter focuses on the evolution of the crisis in the eurozone and the shortcomings which have impeded the EU from bringing it under control. The financial sector had not become a protected zone of the eurozone overnight. Ever since the passing of the Single European Act in 1986, its perceived needs had come to shape the concerns of EU decision-makers to an increasing degree. EU decision-makers at the centre of a marathon economic crisis are increasingly insistent that there is no way out except for a union adopting full political and economic standardisation.

in Europe’s path to crisis
Robert J. McKeever

This chapter brings the U.S. Supreme Court's political and legal dimensions, its powers and limitations, and the resulting controversies, together and addresses the ultimate issue of the role of the Court. It deals with the role played by the Court in allocating power between the different branches of the U.S. government and between the government and the people. The Court is also responsible for amending the U.S. Constitution as it retains its role as the prime legitimator of political change in the country and plays an important role in making national policy. The chapter also discusses the role of the Court in conflict resolution and ensuring political stability. The most valued role performed by the Court is that of defender of civil liberties against majoritarian or governmental power. The chapter also mentions three versions of Court's role and power: the minimal court, the unlimited court, and the realistic court.

in The United States Supreme Court
Abstract only
Edward Ashbee

This chapter looks at an explanation that can be employed to account for Trump's eventual victory. It assesses Trump's ascendancy as a function of, and reaction to, the strategies and discourses pursued in the years preceding 2016 by Republican Party elites. It may be that Republican elites, through the discourses that they adopted in pursuit of given electoral logics, set off particular sets of reactive sequences that culminated, over time, in the emergence of the Trump campaign. Arguably, Republican members of Congress, those who served in state legislatures, and the party's elites increasingly turned to electoral strategies structured around 'base mobilization'. There was a marked shift rightwards in the composition of the Republican caucus serving in the House of Representatives although the process of change took longer, amongst Republicans in the Senate.

in The Trump revolt