This chapter provides an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book. The book is about producing video content with a multi-camera set-up. The principles apply whatever the form of distribution: digital network, Internet, mobile phone or 'other'. It is intended to be used alongside practical courses or modules, both in teaching institutions and in professional training environments. The book also centres on Health and Safety in TV studios, which are potentially dangerous places. It gives a lot of key information about television studios and the people who work in them. The book focuses on exercises to practise some basic principles and shows how to build on these and develop proposals and projects. It goes into more detail on Drama, Music and Action, both in the context of student projects and in the professional world.
Job titles and duties change over the years. All paperwork needs to be identified and page numbered. In the professional world, a vital member of the team is the Script Supervisor who (sometimes with a Production Secretary) is responsible for generating most of the practical paperwork and converting the sloppy scrawls of the Director into a clear and efficient means of communication that is relevant to each member of the studio team. As the Vision Mixer cuts to each new camera-scripted shot, the Script Supervisor calls out the new shot number, as showing on the programme or TX monitor, and identifies which camera is next to be used. An experienced Script Supervisor will also note stop or end timecodes. Traditionally, notes were hand-written directly onto a hard copy of the script. In a tapeless environment, the software on the server notes the duration and start and finish timecodes automatically.
In practical classes, students should have hands-on experience of operating studio cameras and will see how the appearance of a programme can be affected by careless - or inspired - use of lenses. In general, people used to working with prime lenses (that is, convex lenses with a fixed focal length) will talk about the focal length of the lens. Those used to multi-camera studios are more likely to think in terms of the horizontal angle of view. This was true even before the introduction of zoom lenses on all studio cameras. A zoom lens has a variable focal length, so it has a variable angle of view. A low focal length corresponds to a high (horizontal) angle of view. The chapter also looks at aspects of the theory and practice of camera operation. The term 'conventions' also includes the problems associated with 'crossing the line'.
Lighting Directors are highly skilled people and highly paid. This chapter presents a very basic introduction for the non-specialist. In order to record a pleasing picture, the readers will have to manipulate even ambient light to use it creatively. Sometimes, the best way of disguising a small, moving boom shadow might be to create a larger, static shadow, as though there is a building or tree just out of shot. The chapter relates mainly to locations and is relevant to multi-camera working when the readers are on location with an outside broadcast unit. To a camera that has been white-balanced in daylight, tungsten light tends to look orange; if the camera is balanced for tungsten, daylight tends to look blue. Some understanding of the term 'colour temperature' is essential to anyone dealing with lighting for cameras.
This chapter considers the membership strength of Britain's interwar fascist parties, and other areas of related interest such as the social-class and occupational profiles of fascist 'joiners'. Reliable material on the membership in the official fascist sources, in particular, is extremely scarce. Fascist newspaper sources are less useful, however, if we are attempting to arrive at an estimation of a fascist party's membership strength. Membership figures put out by the fascist press are notoriously unreliable. The significance of the National Fascisti and the IFL lay in areas other than the number of members they attracted, though. Both parties had pitifully small memberships. Social-class and occupational analyses of fascist memberships undoubtedly help us to arrive at a greater awareness of the nature of fascism, not least because they impel us to focus on the structural or objective determinants of recruitment.
This chapter is an introduction to sound in television. All microphones convert sound waves into electrical signals. There are many models of microphone in TV studios. Each has its uses but this is not the best place for a full analysis. Although there are others, the kinds the readers are likely to come across fall into one of three types: condenser, dynamic and ribbon. Booms are good where the readers wish to avoid seeing mikes in shot. They are good where radio mikes would look out of place and where they cannot be concealed: in a drama. If the original is the better choice, it is sometimes possible to remove the offending sound from that take without affecting the dialogue but leaving a very noticeable hole in the soundtrack. An atmos track happily fills the gap. The absolute silence of 'no signal' is very obvious and will always need attention.
Of the minor fascist parties during the 1920s the National Fascisti (NF) was the most significant. It was formed by a group of disaffected British Fascisti activists who split from the parent body in late 1924. The NF would look to the recent experiences of Mussolini, and particularly the squadristiy for inspiration and guidance. There are a small number of impressionistic assessments of the NF's membership strength given in the contemporary and postwar accounts. The 1930s threw up another fascist party, the Unity Band, which managed to outlive most of its contemporaries among the minor parties. Like many leading British fascists between the wars, Seton Hutchison was a disillusioned First World War veteran. Prior to his attempts to establish himself as Britain's Fiihrer, Seton Hutchison was a member of the BUF, but was expelled for 'improper conduct', an experience that left him very embittered towards Mosley.
Music used in any kind of public performance will cost money. As far as music in television is concerned, there are, according to a representative of the UK's MCPS-PRS Alliance, four basic ways of using music in a film or TV production, whatever the source: titles and credits, featured, incidental, and ephemeral. The first two of these categories often command higher fees than the second pair. The problem with music from any of the sources is that someone else may hit on the same choice of track for very different content. A better solution is to commission the readers' own composer, even if it is costly. Given that a musical performance can cover anything from a Beethoven symphony to an unaccompanied solo singer, all the author can do is to offer some basic approaches to shooting music in real time in a multi-camera as-live setting.
The doctrines of the British fascist parties were forged from a complex amalgamation of ideas of varying degrees of sophistication and crudity that emanated from a range of sources. The origins of British fascism should not only be sought in ideas and intellectual currents, however. Other forces and tendencies in society, of a social, economic, technological, political and cultural nature, contributed to its emergence, nourished its growth and shaped its subsequent development. Advocates of social-imperialism and national efficiency who ascribed to Social-Darwinist principles would also prove important to the development of British fascist ideas. Besides being a positivist and a progenitor of national socialism, C. Arthur Pearson was a eugenicist, who in 1911 became the first Galton Professor of Eugenics at the University of London. At the more general level, British fascism bequeathed from Social-Darwinism the notion of evolutionary development and ascent to more advanced modes of biological existence.
This chapter provides some general points about safety in TV studios, whether student or professional. There are some points about safety on location because it is sometimes necessary to include one or more single-camera sequences in a predominantly studio-based project. There are two aspects to safety: the readers' own protection and their responsibility to others. In almost all circumstances, whether on location or in a stage or studio, a production will have to generate a risk assessment form. This will indicate the level of risk associated with the production and the precautions that have been taken. Film and TV studios and locations are notorious for cables snaking across the floor. Most studios have a fire lane, which may extend all around the studio. The readers must learn safe procedures for each piece of equipment they use. It is advisable that professionals should each have their own public liability insurance.