This chapter considers the issues of social welfare and political accountability. It argues, contrary to the general implications of research and scholarly observations, levels of social welfare need not always vary positively with levels of democratic practice. The chapter suggests that technologies of rule that enable concerns for social welfare can exist quite independently of European-derived ideas and institutions of political representation and government administration. It explores whether these non-European practices suggest ways to approach social welfare challenges beyond the specific case of China. China's reproduction of agrarian empire has to be considered a major subject in world history. The chapter considers a part of this subject that connects quite directly to the capacities and commitments of the contemporary Chinese state toward its subjects. In nineteenth-century China, taxation begins to increase dramatically at mid-century and bureaucratic effort is shifted from social spending to military and defense matters.
The substantive and methodological contributions of professional historians to development policy debates was marginal, whether because of the dominance of economists or the inability of historians to contribute. There are broadly three ways in which history matters for development policy. These include insistence on the methodological principles of respect for context, process and difference; history is a resource of critical and reflective self-awareness about the nature of the discipline of development itself; and history brings a particular kind of perspective to development problems . After establishing the key issues, this book explores the broad theme of the institutional origins of economic development, focusing on the cases of nineteenth-century India and Africa. It demonstrates that scholarship on the origins of industrialisation in England in the late eighteenth century suggests a gestation reaching back to a period during which a series of social institutional innovations were pioneered and extended to most citizens of England. The book examines a paradox in China where an emphasis on human welfare characterized the rule of the eighteenth-century Qing dynasty, and has been demonstrated in modern-day China's emphasis on health and education. It provides a discussion on the history of the relationship between ideology and policy in public health, sanitation in India's modern history and the poor health of Native Americans. The book unpacks the origins of public education, with a focus on the emergency of mass literacy in Victorian England and excavates the processes by which colonial education was indigenized throughout South-East Asia.
This chapter demonstrates how cultural accounts of men in the home inculcated
feelings that produced, reinforced, and disseminated notions of masculinity.
It shows that while manly men were considered integral to the success of the
home, they were nevertheless envisioned outside the home, fighting for it,
defending it, or providing for it. As such, this chapter addresses men’s
absence from home through the popular motifs of men leaving and returning,
dreaming of home, and their ‘absent presence’; that is, objects which acted
as reminders of those who were away from home for long periods. When print
and visual culture imagined men within the home, it was as catalysts for a
‘happy’ or ‘unhappy’ home, predominantly fashioned through their performance
of key emotions. Men could produce ‘happy’ homes through their provision,
frugality, kindness, love, and affection. Or their disruptive unmanly
behaviours could result in ‘unhappy’ homes, sites of domestic violence. The
chapter focuses on representations of working-class men because middle-class
imaginations often scrutinised their emotional and sexual performances in
the home, since this was deemed central to a successful society and nation.
As such, working-class men also functioned to remind middle-class men what
they should aspire to and avoid being.
Michael Woolcock, Simon Szreter and Vijayendra Rao
This chapter considers how and why history matters for contemporary development policy. It explores the basis on which historical scholarship can help to enrich the quality of contemporary development policy. The chapter provides an overview of the arguments and evidence that underpin the prevailing consensus among development economists and policy-makers that 'institutions' and 'history' matter. It focuses on the different theoretical and methodological underpinnings of contemporary historical scholarship as it pertains to comparative economic development. The chapter argues that in order for non-historians to engage more substantively and faithfully with the discipline of history, they must make a sustained effort both to understand historiography and appreciate anew the limits of their own discipline's methodological assumptions. It describes some of the distinctive types of general principles and specific implications that can be drawn from historical scholarship. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.
This chapter posits the heterogeneous origins of comparative economic development, as opposed to their 'colonial origins'. It considers the case of India and Africa, in the nineteenth century. The central Punjab has been the model for the more prosperous parts of the agrarian economy in both India and Pakistan. The chapter describes the nature of the institutions that seem to have contributed to successful and economic development in the longer term despite the existence of an extractive state. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James Robinson (AJR) argue that there is a strong positive correlation between disease regimes successful European settlement, the generation of 'good' institutions and contemporary wealth. The chapter argues that historical evidence would help us to refine and develop AJR's term 'colonial origins' of comparative development and that pre-colonial and indigenous societal 'capabilities' or 'capacities' in Amartya Sen's sense need to be brought into the equation.
In the Napoleonic Age, statistics became an established part of the administrative repertoire. 'Statistical research,' wrote the Frenchman Alfred Legoyt in 1860, 'leads to the discovery of the laws of the moral world as sure as astronomical observations lead to the establishment of laws in the physical world'. The Belgian Adolphe Quetelet was the initiator of the first international statistical congress, which was held in Brussels in 1853. The international statistical congresses soon had to abandon their cosmopolitan character and, to the confusion and annoyance of statisticians themselves, became the battleground for national interests. The chapter also presents an overview of the concepts discussed in this book. The book describes the perceptions, goals and dilemmas of the protagonists and their contact with each other and traces the international statistical congresses held in various European cities between 1853 and 1876.
This introduction provides an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book explores two areas of interest: the Papal Inquisition in Modena and the status of Jews in an early modern Italian duchy. It argues that trials of the two groups are different because the ecclesiastical tribunals viewed conversos as heretics but Jews as infidels. The study of these trials is based on three facets of the complex and multilayered text of Inquisitorial trials: the judicial aspect, the biographical aspect, and inter-community interaction. The book also focuses on the types of offences for which Jews were tried more often than others in the duchy, that of hiring Christian servants and blasphemy. It emphasizes the fundamental disparity in Inquisitorial procedure regarding Jews. The book provides a better understanding of how an Inquisitorial court assumed jurisdiction over a practising Jewish community in the seventeenth century.
The Introduction articulates the book’s main argument about the integral connection between the omnibus and nineteenth-century popular culture, and the privileged place that representations of the omnibus played in the articulation of urban modernity across a wide corpus. The introduction also sketches the history of public transport in nineteenth-century Paris, essential background for the chapters that follow.
This chapter is concerned with the analysis of finance and commerce developed by the Jacobite historian Thomas Carte in his General History (1744–51). Economic arguments, it is shown, were at the heart of Carte's work; indeed, underpinning his commentary on England's history was a desire to demonstrate that the sort of absolutism practised by the Stuart kings had the capacity to bring both order and commercial wealth to the nation. The discussion traces the origins of this approach to Carte's work as a pamphleteer in the early 1740s, before examining the ways in which it shaped his analyses of both ancient and modern history.
A tale of a young Jewess’s flirtation with Christianity
This chapter begins with a survey of the eighteen proceedings, followed by a micro-historical analysis of the trial against Viviano Sanguinetti, who was accused of dissuading his oldest daughter Miriana from being baptized in 1602. Of the eighteen cases, eight involved the purported dissuasion of potential male converts, nine potential female converts, and one a neophyte who had actually been baptized already for two years by the time the Jews were indicted for having tried to dissuade him. In one processo, that of Mariana Mantuano of 1633, Mariana came to denounce herself, testifying that she had wanted to convert but had then changed her mind, clearly believing that this was the best way of defending herself and preventing further exposure to judicial proceedings. According to Faustina, Miriana had openly discussed Christianity with her, criticized Jewish ritual, and carried a ring engraved with the Madonna of Reggio.