This chapter focuses on the understanding of the late Victorian army that has benefited from a diverse and burgeoning array of scholarship. There are major works on civil–military relations, the army and society, army reform, and imperial defense, buttressed by biographies of senior commanders, studies of war correspondents and the role of the army in imperial propaganda. The late Frank Emery revealed that Victorian soldiers had written numerous letters from earlier campaigns. Letter-writing was not an exclusive preserve of regimental officers and noncommissioned officers (NCOs) and private soldiers wrote many shrewd and observant commentaries. Emery spread his work over much of the Victorian period, including odd letters from the Crimea, India and Afghanistan, and so covered several campaigns in a perfunctory manner. More recent writing indicates that there is an abundance of material to sustain more focused research and writing on particular campaigns. From the Egyptian campaign onwards, the military authorities moved beyond exhortation and censored telegrams from the front.
This book addresses the analytical consequences of the encounter between West Indian and Briton. West Indian emigrants came from societies well advanced in the prerequisites of breaking from colonialism. The West Indian presence created new possibilities within the metropolitan culture for the issues to be spoken. West Indian exiles in London played a decisive role. For West Indians to ‘become’ postcolonial they were required to destroy the external authority of the British. The Pleasures of Exile and Beyond a Boundary represent the theorisation of the migrant view of England. Through the 1960s, West Indians in Britain were alive to the cultural developments in the newly independent countries of black Africa, and representatives of a new generation of black African novelists found in the Caribbean Artists Movement a welcoming home.
This chapter places the IODE in a historical context, revealing its substantial contribution to the making of an Anglo-Canadian identity in the image of Britain. This study, which is about a group of women and the collective identity and vision they forged, focuses on the IODE's invention of ‘Britishness’ as a part of its vision for Anglo-Canada. That focus makes necessary the complicating of notions of imperialism as beginning in a European metropole and expanding outwards. Instead, colonialism becomes ‘a moment when new encounters with the world facilitated the formation of categories of metropole and colony in the first place’. In addition, the chapter looks at the imposition of hegemony, not by the direct force of a colonising power, but by the mimicry of descendants from the constructed British imperial center. It also takes up Buckner's challenge, and examines the development of a British Canada through the work of a group of female imperialists.
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain
This chapter provides an introduction to a study that traces the circumstances in which political rights were accorded or denied to Indigenous peoples in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa from the 1830s to 1910 by British colonists. It compares the nature of colonization in settler colonies such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa and colonies of exploitation such as India. In colonies of settlement, economic interests of colonists were vested primarily in securing permanent control of the land, maximizing settler access to land and converting that land to property. The settlers focused on establishing British systems of law and government and launching of the independent states if settler hegemony could be achieved. The chapter furthermore discusses the aspects of property and political rights in the relationships between settlers and Indigenes.
After the decisive battle of Plassey, various forms of knowledge production grew exponentially. In 1784 the Asiatic Society of Bengal was formed. It was at this moment that equations of state were brought into a unitary epistemological field. This chapter argues that the eighteenth-century European state established its authority by codifying and controlling the representation of the relationship between the past and the present. The accumulation of vast amounts of information on finance, trade, health, crime and industry served this end. In Britain this cultural project was integral to the country's emergence as a colonial power, and since India was potentially the most important colony, the consolidation of the state brought the two countries into a relationship of mutual reciprocity. The projects of state building in both countries—documentation, classification and bounding, and the institutions therewith—often reflected theories, experiences and practices worked out originally in India and then applied to Great Britain as well as vice versa.
This chapter addresses in what sense Jean Rhys could be called a West Indian. Three of her first four novels, and many of her short stories, are placed in Europe, and have heroines with no apparent knowledge of the Caribbean. The fiercest battle over her place in West Indian literature was fought out in the 1970s. Rhys is a diasporic intellectual, with the migrant's consciousness of the shifting complexity of identities and the impossibility of an assured ‘arrival’. Like other West Indians, Rhys met immediate prejudice when she reached England. Her attitudes are never simple, and she says at one point that her hatred of England was really ‘disappointed love’. Rhys' fiction imagines Englishness as the apotheosis of whiteness, in contrast to Caribbean blackness. Wide Sargasso Sea is Rhys' most Caribbean novel, linguistically as well as in subject matter.
Sudha Shah's study has comprehensively traced the fate of the royals in exile, and Amitav Ghosh's novel The Glass Palace provides a fascinating fictionalised portrayal. This chapter begins with an overview of the ouster of Indian 'princes' who were taken as prisoners of war, or deposed on grounds of resistance, maladministration and character defects, from the early 1800s until the 1940s. The nineteenth century saw unparalleled British empire-building in Asia after the consolidation of its position in Ceylon in 1815. When the British invaded Delhi, Bahadur Shah Zafar and his sons took refuge at Hamayun's Tomb, the burial-ground of the Mughal emperor. The chapter examines the overthrow of the last king of Burma following the conquest of Mandalay in 1885. It looks at the removal of a Southeast Asian monarch, the Sultan of Perak in Malaya.
Sri Vikrama Rajasinha and his dynasty out of the way, the British monarchy and its viceregal representatives assumed the place of the Kandy monarchy, while extending royal power over the whole island in a way the Nayakkars never managed. The dramatic circumstances of Vikrama's capture were recounted in a memoir by a British-employed interpreter, William Adrian Dias Bandaranayaka. Vikrama and earlier Kandyan kings indeed used coerced labour, and only after his death was slavery abolished throughout the empire. In the late 1700s and during the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, Britain and France were embroiled in commercial rivalries and military conflicts that constituted a world war fought in Europe, the Americas and Asia. As the years passed, Britain entrenched itself in Ceylon and India, the world largely ignorant about the captive in Vellore. Revolts, insurrections and conspiracies occurred with regularity in Ceylon from 1817 to 1848.
The Court and Social pages of The Times listed many announcements of the arrival and departure of visiting maharajas. The most glittering events of the late nineteenth century was the Thakur Sahib Bhagvatsinh, a Rajput who ruled Gondal state from 1884 until his death and assumed the title of Maharaja in 1888. Bhagvatsinh left Gondal on 16 April 1883 and in Bombay embarked upon the SS Cathay, 'a floating hamlet' with 'all the comforts and conveniences of a land life'. Bhagvatsinh also attended Admiralty House to view Trooping the Colour, a state ball at Buckingham Palace and a 'wonderfully done' performance of Much Ado about Nothing at the Lyceum Theatre featuring Henry Irving and Ellen Terry. Leaving Britain, the European stage of Bhagvatsinh's tour began in Paris, where the people appeared to be less energetic than the British and 'idling about their work' due to 'epicurean habits'.
Women, internal colonization and indigenous peoples
The chapter highlights the influence of the USA and looks to the IODE's most recent projects in the Canadian north, covering the demise of the ‘racial hierarchy’ and the IODE's corresponding shift of focus away from immigrants to the canadianising of ‘new’ Canadians. It shows the IODE negotiating a position increasingly away from that of government, moving towards children and individuals as the focus of its ‘charity’. The IODE has shifted focus, a shift that began during the Cold War, to a group of citizens who, although living within Canadian territory, were previously considered ‘foreign’. This shift represented a change in Canada's identity from that of a dominion in the Empire, with an identity centered on Britain, to that of a nation situated in Canadian geographic space. The decreasing confidence in colonial attitudes was reflected in the drifting away of the IODE from involvement with the Canadian government towards the spaces of charity and home. This study draws out the irony manifest in the attempt to assimilate indigenous peoples into the national project, and make them the same as other Canadians, while clinging to the spatial and social difference of the north. As this chapter shows, through the IODE's work in the Canadian north, this colonisation took place within a national boundary.