Sonja Tiernan

Shortly after civil partnerships came into effect the coalition government collapsed. This chapter outlines how the general election of 2011 helped progress the campaign for marriage equality. This was a time ripe for political reform. Each of the main political parties recognised a need for constitutional change which was reflected in their election manifestos.

in The history of marriage equality in Ireland
Hugh Cunningham

In this period philanthropy stood highest in esteem. The Times moderated its stance. Newspapers praised Britain as a philanthropic nation. People wrote of their government as philanthropic in its foreign policy. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert devoted time and resources to much-praised philanthropy. But there were worries. The Social Science Association, with which philanthropy was at first closely aligned, distanced itself from it and became the voice for social reform. The Charity Organisation Society promoted scientific charity; its secretary, C. S. Loch, did not disguise his mistrust of philanthropy. Criticism was still unrelenting: ‘practical philanthropy’ was admired, but too much of it, according to the critics, was ‘spurious’ or ‘pseudo’. In 5 per cent philanthropy there was an attempt to help resolve housing problems but it came to be seen as a failure. Philanthropy was associated with the multiplicity of voluntary organisations to help the needy but they had spawned a body of ‘professional philanthropists’, who ran these organisations and were subjected to ridicule and dislike. Effeminacy became even more linked to philanthropy. In the late 1860s and early 1870s, three books by the era’s most eminent novelists had philanthropy directly in their sights: Middlemarch, The Moonstone and The Mystery of Edwin Drood.

in The reputation of philanthropy since 1750
Local societies in early medieval Europe

This is an exploration of social cohesion in rural settlements in western Europe in the period 700–1050 CE, and of the extent to which settlements, or districts, constituted units of social organisation. It focuses on the interactions, interconnections and networks of people who lived side by side – neighbours. Drawing evidence from most of the current western European countries, the book plots and interrogates the very different practices of this wide range of regions in a systematically comparative framework, offering a new approach to well-known problems of the early Middle Ages by bringing together expertise from different national traditions. It examines how people in the localities of the early medieval West worked together in pursuit of shared goals beyond the level of the household, and how (and whether) they formed their own groups through that collective action. It considers the variety of local responses to the supra-local agents of landlords and rulers and the impact, such as it was, of those agents on the small-scale residential group. It also assesses the impact on local societies of the values, instructions and demands of the wider literate world of Christianity, as delivered by local priests.

Searching for the local
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies and Miriam Czock

There is no evidence that the residential group was the only group to which local people belonged. The locality, understood as a zone of the order of 10 km diameter, with a multiplicity of settlements, was a meaningful unit of operation, although the scale of association in northern Iberia appears to have been wider. Some members of some settlements engaged in collective agricultural practices, and some households joined together to take legal action, but there is no reason to suppose that all members of any one settlement regularly did so. There is little awareness of belonging to a group, although the integration of immigrants and the exclusion of individuals are well evidenced. There cannot have been a shared view of social cohesion in every settlement or every locality. The same Christian message was heard by every flock, meaning that the sphere of responsibility of the local priest defined a community of a kind, although some people clearly stole from their neighbours, as others fought or assaulted or raped them. The number of officers within range, and the frequency of their visits, must have made a difference to the lives of peasant farmers: so, life in a farming settlement in northern Iberia must have been free from the micro-management of those in the Carolingian Empire.

in Neighbours and strangers
Sonja Tiernan

This chapter focuses on the first legal case to pursue recognition of a same-sex marriage. The case was launched by Irish citizens Katherine Zappone and Ann Louise Gilligan, who were married in British Columbia after the legislation was implemented there. This section details how this case moved from a request to the Revenue Commissioners to be assessed as a married couple to a High Court case.

in The history of marriage equality in Ireland
Hugh Cunningham

By the outbreak of the First World War there was talk of the services offered by the state working in harmony with voluntary organisations. It was notable in such discussions that ‘philanthropy’ was rarely mentioned. In the war itself there was a huge increase in the number of charities and some attempt to give them a voice in the National Council of Social Service. Post-war the tone of discussion changed in ways damaging to philanthropy. It was seen as ‘Victorian’, condescending. The new language was about citizenship, democracy, social work, voluntary organisations and volunteering. But if philanthropy was in many ways redundant there were attempts to revive it, most notably by Elizabeth Macadam in The New Philanthropy (1934) and by William Beveridge in Voluntary Action (1948). Neither had much impact. It was easy to imagine that philanthropy and philanthropists would soon belong to the past. Revival came with growing criticism of the welfare state and, from the 1970s, the renewed confidence in markets that led eventually to the implementation of a neoliberal agenda. It was less a distrust of markets, more the accumulation of vast individual wealth that markets had made possible, that opened the door for another ‘new philanthropy’.

in The reputation of philanthropy since 1750
Sonja Tiernan

The introduction of civil partnerships in Ireland is discussed. This chapter further examines one of the major concerns for marriage equality campaigners who highlighted that civil partnerships did not offer equivalent rights to civil marriage, especially in relation to the children of such partnerships.

in The history of marriage equality in Ireland
Sonja Tiernan

An overview of the Constitutional Convention which was established to ensure ‘participative democracy’ in considering changes to the Irish Constitution. This chapter examines how in April 2013 delegates overwhelmingly called for a constitutional change to extend civil marriage to same-sex couples and, significantly, to include amendments for parental rights in this regard. The chapter also describes the beginning of a great controversy, popularly referred to as ‘Pantigate’, which placed the issue of marriage equality centre stage in an open debate about homophobia.

in The history of marriage equality in Ireland
Hugh Cunningham

This chapter lays out in graphical form the results of word searches for ‘philanthropy’ and ‘philanthropist’ in the Burney Collection of Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Newspapers and the British Library Newspapers Archive on Gale NewsVault and the collections on British Periodicals available on ProQuest. I have also carried out in-depth work on The Times and the Observer and Manchester Guardian and on the Daily Mail from its start in 1896. The results show the growth of use of the words in the second half of the eighteenth century, a slight dip in the early nineteenth century, followed by exponential growth in the 1830s and 1840s to reach a plateau of high usage through to the end of the century. There is then sharp decline through to the 1940s, followed by increasingly rapid growth from the 1980s.

in The reputation of philanthropy since 1750
Abstract only
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies and Miriam Czock

This chapter outlines the main problems the book will address, surveys the national historiographies of Germany, England, France, Italy and Spain and identifies the problems highlighted therein. While national historiographies have different preoccupations, we note the widespread influence of German writing of the nineteenth century and of French regional studies in the twentieth. There are also common themes: free proprietorship and personal freedom and their impact (or not) on emerging institutions; lordship and its many varieties, with a tendency to treat the local through the structures and relationships of great estates; the importance of archaeology and its increasing provision of new data.

in Neighbours and strangers