Part ten deals with the spiritual and ecclesiastical governance of the city
of Genoa. Chapter one explains Genoa’s elevation to a bishopric in late
antiquity, while chapter two explains its elevation to an archbishopric in
the twelfth century.
Part three has four chapters. The first presents the etymologies regarding
the Italic king Janus and a Trojan refugee named Janus. Chapter two gives an
etymology based on the Roman god Janus. Chapter three gives an etymology
based on the Latin word ianua (‘door’ or ‘portal’). Chapter four seeks to
explain why the Latin word for Genoa was different in Jacopo’s time (Ianua)
than it was in classical sources (Genua).
Part twelve presents an annalistic narrative of Genoese history from 1133 to
1297. It is divided into eight chapters; each chapter describes a single
archbishop of Genoa (including Jacopo himself, part 12.8) and narrates city
and world events during his tenure.
Part two deals with the era in which Genoa was first built. This part has
three chapters: the first discusses the era in which the city was founded;
the second details the era in which it was expanded; and the third describes
how Genoa was destroyed by the Carthaginians but rebuilt by the Romans, and
in what era that occurred.
A selection of sources that traces the progress of an anchoritic vocation from its first stirrings up to formal profession and enclosure. The sources span the full chronological range of the volume, from twelfth to sixteenth century, and include legal and administrative documents, liturgy and less formal works of guidance.
The sources selected for this section illustrate various aspects of the material life of anchorites in their cells. They include evidence for the size, design and furnishing of the reclusory; the provision of food and other necessities, including the role of servants; and patronage in a range of forms, from occasional and customary gifts to bequests in wills, and from a variety of patrons, ranging from ordinary local people to nobles such as Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of King Henry VII.
This section provides some insights into the daily routine of anchorites. Whereas most of the sources for Chapter 2 are administrative, the focus of this chapter is primarily on anchoritic rules and works of guidance, including the complete text of a rule for a monk-anchorite of Bury St Edmunds and excerpts from the fifteenth-century Speculum Inclusorum. Topics covered include food and drink, clothing, speech and silence, manual labour and other pastimes, and the reception of visitors. There is also a consideration of some anchorites’ visions that may be compared with those of Julian of Norwich.
The section examines the fate of hermits and anchorites during the religious changes of the Reformation period. Some hermits were outspoken critics of the Dissolution. Others were caught up in its process, though the vocations were never officially abolished. Some individuals attempted to maintain their previous form of living, in at least some of its aspects, with varying degrees of success, into and beyond the 1540s. But by the end of the sixteenth century, hermits and anchorites were already part of the medieval past that was in process of being constructed as an object of study by early modern antiquarians.
In theory, an anchoritic life should have been ended only by death, though in a few cases recluses left their cells prematurely. The last of the sections dedicated to anchorites alone focuses on the end of anchoritic life. Images and reminders of death surrounded the anchorite in his or her cell, and formed part of daily observance. The chapter also includes examples of solitaries preparing for their old age and death, whether by alterations to their domestic arrangements, or by the making of a will. Examples of failed or interrupted anchoritic vocations include the intriguing case of the last anchoress of Whalley (Lancashire).