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Continuities, changes and challenges
Neville Wylie, Melanie Oppenheimer and James Crossland

This chapter introduces the subject of humanitarianism, outlines the various constituent elements that make up the Red Cross Movement and gives an overview of the current state of scholarship on the subject. It introduces the three themes, and summarises the contributions made to these themes by the chapters brought together in the volume. Finally, it indicates avenues for future research.

in The Red Cross Movement
Myths, practices, turning points

This book offers new insights into the history of the Red Cross Movement, the world’s oldest humanitarian body originally founded in 1863 in Geneva, Switzerland. Incorporating new research, the book reimagines and re-evaluates the Red Cross as a global institutional network. It is the first book of its kind to focus on the rise of the Red Cross, and analyses the emergence of humanitarianism through a series of turning points, practices and myths. The book explores the three unique elements that make up the Red Cross Movement: the International Committee of the Red Cross; the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent, formerly known as the League of Red Cross Societies (both based in Geneva); and the 191 national societies. It also coincides with the centenary of the founding of the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, formed in May 1919 in the aftermath of the First World War. The book will be invaluable for students, lecturers, humanitarian workers, and those with a general interest in this highly recognizable and respected humanitarian brand. With seventeen chapters by leading scholars and researchers from Europe, the UK, Australia, New Zealand and America, the book deserves a place on the bookshelves of historians and international relations scholars interested to learn more about this unique, complex and contested organisation.

The external image of Germany’s foreign policy
Siegfried Schieder

This chapter builds on a constructivist reading of German foreign policy and reconstructs the political, historical and intellectual context in which Germany’s role concept as a ‘civilian power’ has evolved after the Second World War. Furthermore, it explores how Germany has modified its ‘civilian’ foreign policy in view of an increasingly complex international environment since the 1990s, and how Germany’s revised foreign policy is perceived from abroad. In more detail, it asks whether Germany is still seen as a ‘civilian power’ and reveals a marked dissonance between Germany’s self-perception and the perception of others. In particular, Germany’s transatlantic allies are increasingly generating unease and criticism, and this criticism may also undermine Germany’s credibility both at home and abroad.

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks
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International Relations theory and Germany
Richard Ned Lebow

In contrast to the preceding chapters, this concluding chapter explores the ways in which IR theory has shaped our image of Germany. It makes the case for an iterative feedback process among country images and theory. On the basis of a quantitative analysis of leading IR works from the 1940s to the present day, it shows that in the post-war era, Germany has been the most frequent national role model for theorists and that Germany has been used in diverse ways by different paradigms. Germany’s central but changing role in world and European affairs, and the disciplinary prestige of emigre scholars explain the high scholarly interest in the country. Conditions have changed and theoretical interest in Germany has begun to decline.

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks
Memory and identity in Cold War America
Brian Etheridge

This chapter explores the complicated American discourses surrounding the rapid reversal of Germany from enemy to ally in the Cold War era. It shows that a diverse range of actors – both American and (West) German, state and non-state, and public and private – produced and debated conflicting images of Germany. One part of the story is how different groups fought over the shaping of American understanding of Deutschtum (or Germanness) through the mass media. Another, equally important, part is how the fruits of these efforts (articles, books, films, television programmes, etc.) were interpreted by those Americans who consumed them. When taken together, they illustrate how images of Germany were more about the American understanding of self than the American understanding of Germanness.

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks
The Weimar Republic in the eyes of American political science
Paul Petzschmann

This chapter explores competing American accounts of the Weimar Republic and their significance for IR during the interwar period. It focuses on two interpretations of the Weimar Republic in the context of German sovereignty and regime change. Hermann Mattern argued that the Weimar Constitution put an end to the legal debate about the location of sovereignty in the German polity. Rupert Emerson, on the other hand, regarded the revival of German Federalism as part of an international trend towards fragmented sovereignty and as a potentially positive step into the direction of a new, ‘post-sovereign’ international order. Both interpretations highlight the importance of the American experience of the state, of sovereignty and of the Civil War for shaping academic discourses on sovereignty, and the occurring rift between the ideal of legal sovereignty and its political reality prefigured realist theorising.

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks
The changing view of Germany in Anglo-American geopolitics
Lucian Ashworth

This chapter traces changing geopolitical views of Germany and their academic and political influence. The geopolitician Halford J. Mackinder remained impressed with Germany’s advances in geography and spatial literacy, while increasingly seeing that superior knowledge as part of the threat posed by an insurgent Wilhelmine Empire. By the 1940s, though, German geography, through the popular image of Karl Haushofer, had been re-interpreted as a pathological throwback. Anglo-American geopolitics that would greatly influence the post-1945 construction of a new global order relied heavily on both positive and negative images of Germany. In this sense, the vision of Germany and its geopolitics was the foil against which the post-war settlement was framed.

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks
Edwin Borchard between New Haven and Berlin
Jens Steffek and Tobias Heinze

This chapter shows how Germany’s fight against the Versailles peace settlement was intertwined with the rise of realism in the US. It documents how realist accounts of the ever-conflictual nature of IR and the weakness of international law facilitated German revisionism. A case in point is the American international lawyer Edwin M. Borchard, one of the major advocates of US neutrality. In the 1930s Borchard was among the first American scholars to suggest a ‘realist’ approach to IR and law, arguing that international treaties and collective security schemes were unable to accommodate change. He used such arguments in a relentless political campaign against the Treaty of Versailles, the Kellogg-Briand Pact and concerted action against Nazi Germany. The chapter documents that German lawyers who were busy legitimating breaches of the Treaty of Versailles and trying to discredit American involvement in the Second World War happily cited Borchard’s ideas.

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks
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Changing images of Germany
Jens Steffek and Leonie Holthaus

This chapter pursues three tasks. First, it reviews Germany’s impact on the history of the twentieth century and discusses influential examples of scholarly reflection upon Germany. Second, it explains the approach of the book by outlining the generation of images of nations in IR theory. Images are mental pictures of an entity that identify typical or even unique characteristics through audio-visual or narrative representations. Furthermore, the studied images of Germany are tainted by the interests and political projects of others. Hence, it suggests that not historical events themselves but their stylised representation in discourse affect academic theorising. Finally, it provides an overview of the following chapters.

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks
Leonie Holthaus

This chapter seeks to reconstruct and contextualize liberal internationalism’s creation of an autocratic and militarist German adversary at the beginning of the twentieth century. Liberal internationalists used images of less civilized societies and of a militarist German state to accentuate their own virtues, both British and liberal, and to recollect liberal beliefs in progress. During the First World War, L. T. Hobhouse and other intellectuals considerably supported the official propaganda when they distinguished between a Western and, by definition, liberal civilisation, led by Britain on the one hand and a backward and militarist Germany on the other. Like later theorists of Germany’s Sonderweg, its ‘special path’ to modernity, they identified inflated nationalism as the cause of Germany’s departure from the Western model.

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks