Chapter 2 examines the professionalisation of the publishing industry and the first generation of ‘professional’ poets. It focuses on a peculiar phenomenon of the 1590s, Robert Greene’s death in 1592 and his textual afterlife as a semi-fictionalised professional poet character and cause of the Harvey–Nashe quarrel. Due to his reputation as a ‘hack’ writer, much Greene criticism has focused on literary quality (as well as the apparent insult to Shakespeare in Greenes Groats-worth of Witte), although recently there have been more varied approaches to Greene. This chapter, however, is primarily interested in Greene’s afterlife as a biographical phenomenon. It argues that Greene’s notoriety as a prodigal scholar and a professional – if negatively perceived – poet figure is for the most part a posthumous construct through his appearances as a ghostly character figuring in other people’s works. This involved a gradual fashioning of Greene’s body of works into a suitable life narrative by other figures involved in the professionalisation of the English publishing industry during the 1590s. Vitally, however, this fashioned identity established the possibility of newly close relation between the nature of literary output and personal life.

in English literary afterlives
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Physician-publics, citizen-audiences and a half-century of health-care debates in Canada

This chapter examines five decades of historical writing on, and myth-making about, the origins of Medicare, Canada’s public health-care system. It examines interpretations of the 1962 doctors’ strike in Saskatchewan, and its reception and uptake among physician and citizen audiences. Within the medical profession, academic and professional elites have vied to capture attention from Canadian citizen-audiences. A pro-Medicare consensus, emergent in the 1960s and 1970s, was replaced in the early 2000s by a newly polarized view, critical of public health care, which reinterprets the history of the strike action as a form of justified public protest.

in Communicating the history of medicine
Representations, address and assumptions about influence

Sex education films have historically raised much concern due to their combining a controversial subject with a medium believed to have a particularly great influence on its audiences. In this chapter, the role of medicine in the relationship between sex education films and their audiences is explored, using a number of Swedish films from different time periods as examples. The chapter demonstrates that a medical perspective was significant in this relationship, both regarding the context in which audiences viewed the films, and regarding representations and educational address. Reflections are also made concerning the audiences of historical research on sex education films today.

in Communicating the history of medicine
From Donne to Herbert

This chapter focuses on Izaak Walton and his discovery of a biographical technique that anticipates literary biography, through his uncommon educational background, his experience of the Civil War and his interest in the concept of a ‘private’ life. The chapter examines how in his different versions of the Life of Donne, written over the course of thirty-five years, Walton grew increasingly interested in Donne’s works (especially his poetic works) and attempted to use them in his Life to recover the poet’s own voice or ventriloquise it through paraphrases. Over the course of his revisions to the Life of Donne, Walton developed a new model for writing a Life, which, unlike the vita activa model, was suitable for writing the life of a poet and culminated in Walton’s Life of Herbert, the first life of an English poet as a poet. The chapter argues that Walton’s biographical technique was substantially shaped by his use of literary quotation, which differs from the aphoristic style of quotation more commonly used by his contemporaries. It also proposes that Walton’s innovative approach played an important role in the success of his Lives and proved highly influential for the development of literary biography.

in English literary afterlives
The historian’s dilemmas in a time of health-care reform

This chapter examines ways in which historians of medicine can reach the wider public and have an impact on policy debates. Using the US Affordable Care Act as a case study, it describes how historians have engaged in correcting health policy falsehoods, disseminating historical research to a wider audience, cautiously applying the lessons of history to policy, and even direct advocacy. It ends by cautioning that historical research and publication must still be valued for their own sakes, apart from its ‘impact’ outside the academy.

in Communicating the history of medicine
Lourdes Castro and Manuel Zimbro’s Un autre livre rouge

Ana Bigotte Vieira and André Silveira examine Un autre livre rouge, an artist book made by the Portuguese artists Lourdes Castro and Manuel Zimbro while they were living in Paris. The two-volume book alluded to Mao’s Little Red Book and was entirely devoted to the contradictory meanings and psychological associations that red conveyed. The work was crafted mostly between 1973 and 1975 at a time of radical political change in Portugal. The Carnation Revolution and the PREC (Período Revolucionário Em Curso, Ongoing Revolutionary Period) informed Un autre livre rouge, which was, however, both less and more than a political book.

in Art, Global Maoism and the Chinese Cultural Revolution

Many people in the West can recognise an image of Mao Zedong (1894–1976) and know that he was an important Chinese leader, but few appreciate the breadth and depth of his political and cultural significance. Fewer still know what the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966–76) was, or understand the extent of its influence on art in the West or in China today. This anthology, which is the first of its kind, contends that Maoism and the Chinese Cultural Revolution were dominant cultural and political forces in the second half of the twentieth century – and that they continue to exert influence, globally, right up to the present. In particular, the book claims that the Chinese Cultural Revolution deserves a more prominent place in twentieth-century art history. Exploring the dimensions of Mao’s cultural influence through case studies, and delineating the core of his aesthetic programme, in both the East and the West, constitute the heart of this project. While being rooted in the tradition of social art history and history, the essays, which have been written by an international community of scholars, foreground a distinctively multidisciplinary approach. Collectively they account for local, regional and national differences in the reception, adoption and dissemination of – or resistance to – Maoist aesthetics.

Polly Savage’s chapter examines Maoism in Mozambique. Drawing on interviews and archival records, the study focuses on the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (or FRELIMO). Between 1970 and 1977 FRELIMO negotiated an artistic and cultural agenda combining, not without difficulties, leftist internationalism and local traditions. The analysis of works produced by the graphic designer ‘Mphumo’ João Craveirinha Jr offers insightful perspectives on how these tensions materialised in images.

in Art, Global Maoism and the Chinese Cultural Revolution

Colette Gaiter’s chapter looks at the work of the American artist Emory Douglas, the Minister of Culture for the Black Panther party, which at the time was subscribing to a political tendency known as ‘intercommunalism’. More expansive than other strands of leftist thought, intercommunalism sought to unite countries of the world in resistance to global capitalism and imperialism. A wave of ‘Black Maoism’ swept through black liberation movements at this time and came to visual life in Emory Douglas’s work on the Black Panther newspaper.

in Art, Global Maoism and the Chinese Cultural Revolution

Simon Soon’s chapter discusses the development of leftist art discourses in Singapore and Indonesia by examining a selection of manifestos and texts alongside artworks. Close readings unearth oblique references to Talks at the Yan’an Forum on Literature and Art, which enabled artists to open new ways beyond the autonomy of art in the shadow of the 1955 Bandung conference.

in Art, Global Maoism and the Chinese Cultural Revolution