The restructuring of work in Germany
Louise Amoore

This chapter considers the restructuring debate taking place in German state-society. In popular and academic discourse, Germany is often presented either as a proving ground for globalisation or as a rebuttal to globalisation. This chapter argues that perceptions of the German relationship to globalisation, both inside and outside the state-society, are contradictory and contested. It explores the historical institutions and practices of state, capital and labour that have made possible particular programmes of restructuring in Germany. It also discusses the contemporary restructuring of working practices, revealing the dominant negotiated programme of ‘flexicorporatism’.

in Globalisation contested
The restructuring of work in Britain
Louise Amoore

This chapter discusses the representation of globalisation underpinning British programmes of ‘hyperflexibility’ in the restructuring of work. It addresses the ‘national capitalisms’ debate, exploring the making of a distinctively British capitalism, and discussing the contemporary discursive remaking of a ‘global Britain’. It notes the use of the IPE of social practice to reveal the tensions and contradictions of British hyperflexibility.

in Globalisation contested
Open Access (free)
Back to the future
Alex Gekker, Sam Hind, Sybille Lammes, Chris Perkins and Clancy Wilmott

This concluding chapter stresses the implications of arguments made by authors in the different sections of the book; highlighting possible broader research questions surrounding digital mapping and temporality that arise. In particular, in relation to the first section of the book, it suggests research might usefully attend to relations of spatiality and temporality, focus on the difficulties of distinguishing between the ephemeral and epochal, and investigate temporal consequences stemming from layering implicit in digital mapping. From the second section, it suggests research might attend more to the possibilities of resistance in the face of technological inevitability, that research might focus on methods for understanding affordances arising in the stitching together of everyday memories in a transient technological age, and suggests we might focus more on places than on spaces in that context. From the final section, it suggests that conceptual, material and anticipatory logics underpinning the organisation of time in digital mapping demand attention. Together, these directions highlight the profoundly social consequences of a shift towards temporality.

in Time for mapping
The case for practice theory
Matthew Hanchard

The increasing range and mobility of platforms and devices supporting digital maps has opened space for change; everyday routines are disturbed and reflexively modified while the landscape of technical infrastructures shift. In this, digital technologies, such as digital maps, are beginning to anchor everyday life and a myriad of mundane temporalities. In this chapter, a brief outline of cartographic theory contextualises the value of practice theory in addressing the extent to which digital maps anchor everyday life and the process by which they do so; a historical limitation in cartographic theory. Applying a practice theory lens to three examples of anchored temporality, this argument is empirically grounded. The chapter serves to practically illustrate how a practice theory might be applied and the value it may add in addressing relationships between digital map use and the wider shifting temporalities of everyday life.

in Time for mapping
Exploring the real-time smart city dashboard
Michiel de Lange

This contribution unpacks the notion of ‘real-time’ and explores ‘asynchronicity’ as a way to explore temporality in the nexus of urban dashboards. It is argued that attempts to annihilate time as a constraining factor in mapping the urban metabolism bypass the creative and oftentimes messy role of ‘smart citizens’ in shaping their own living conditions. Real-time, in fact, may be at odds with smartness and city life. Notions of asynchronicity can sensitise us to the hidden assumptions and potential fallacies in the rhetoric about real-time, and help to evoke a more engaging role of citizens as ‘city hackers’ with a sense of collective ‘ownership’. Evaluation of recent investigations of urban dashboards is followed by an analysis of the term real-time, building on Barbara Adam’s typology of time. The chapter concludes with some reflections on the implications of the real-time trope, and how asynchronicity provides an alternative heuristic of the real-time smart city.

in Time for mapping
Open Access (free)
Mapping times
Alex Gekker, Sam Hind, Sybille Lammes, Chris Perkins and Clancy Wilmott

This introductory chapter situates ensuing arguments about the relations between mapping and temporality made by the contributors to this collection. It deploys two cases: (1) the film Back to the Future, and (2) the rise of digital mapping, to exemplify complex aspects of these relations and to highlight the ways in which temporality, as well as space, makes a difference in digital times. A grounding of temporal thinking is deployed to explore the intellectual forces that underpin different ways authors in the book reflect on time as against space in this context. A justification is provided for the sectional layout into ephemerality/mobility, stitching memories, and (in)formalising, and basic introductions to subsequent chapter arguments are made.

in Time for mapping
A trialogue
Sybille Lammes, Kate McLean and Chris Perkins

This chapter discusses how Kate McLean uses mapping as part of her artistic-based research into smellscapes. McLean investigates how smell can be mapped when traversing environments in ‘smell walks’ through cities and using gathered olfactory data. Her work is mainly concerned with the ephemerality of smells and how to visually capture this volatility in and on smell maps. These maps are produced as an assemblage of digital technologies and manual techniques, such as drawing and painting. Lammes and Perkins discuss with her how olfactory mapping foregrounds many different temporalities and how it brings us new temporal – as well as spatial – stories.

in Time for mapping
Considerations and consequences
Thomas Sutherland

Examining the growing interest in the mapping of ‘flows’, in terms of its historical context and contemporary import, this chapter proposes that such practices reflect and reinforce a theoretical discourse of protean fluidity (with an often quasi-metaphysical tenor). All too frequently, this discourse is left under-analysed; taken for granted as both an empirical banality and transcendental certainty. The metaphor of fluidity, it is argued, has considerable utility, especially in relation to the new modalities of cartography arising from Geographic Information Systems (GIS). However, this aid to understanding needs to be recognised as a particular way of spatially representing time, one that may normalise certain ideological precepts.

in Time for mapping
A conceptual framework for considering mapping projects as they change over time
Cate Turk

Everyday users depend on maps as stable bases by which to navigate their lives, but map theorists have recently pointed out how fluid and dynamic maps can be. This chapter proposes a conceptual model for studying the dynamism of online mapping. Drawing on Sloterdijk’s concepts of bubbles, spheres and foams, the chapter suggests a means by which contingency and temporal variability can be conceptualised. Taking maps as ‘bubbles’ in an actor-network of 'foam', it demonstrates how they draw together different data within assemblages of producers and users. To illustrate how this model works, the chapter examines ‘crisis mapping’ as online collaborations where volunteers create maps to help understand and respond to natural disasters and political conflicts. It shows how these projects, like bubbles in foam, depend upon internal substance; contingent relationships with assemblages of actors; and the quality of their interface, for their continuing utility through time.

in Time for mapping
Open Access (free)
Tuur Driesser

This chapter considers the implications of recent developments around object-oriented philosophy, the ontological turn and new materialism for the study of maps. Drawing a line from critical cartography to contemporary debates of non-representational and performative mapping, it argues for an approach that goes beyond textual or representational readings to think about how maps invent, affect and perform. With regards to time, this means an examination not of its representation, but of how maps themselves produce particular temporalities. A case study of the PathoMap describes how digital visualisations in the ‘smart city’ help to produce a regime of preparedness. As ‘device’, the map establishes a rhythm with the city, from emergence, to detection, to intervention; closing down the horizon of possible futures. In contrast to this pre-emptive elimination of uncertainty, it is suggested that a critical object-oriented cartography can point to the potential of maps to prompt the speculative provocation of possibility.

in Time for mapping