This chapter considers the restructuring debate taking place in German state-society. In popular and academic discourse, Germany is often presented either as a proving ground for globalisation or as a rebuttal to globalisation. This chapter argues that perceptions of the German relationship to globalisation, both inside and outside the state-society, are contradictory and contested. It explores the historical institutions and practices of state, capital and labour that have made possible particular programmes of restructuring in Germany. It also discusses the contemporary restructuring of working practices, revealing the dominant negotiated programme of ‘flexicorporatism’.
This chapter discusses the representation of globalisation underpinning British programmes of ‘hyperflexibility’ in the restructuring of work. It addresses the ‘national capitalisms’ debate, exploring the making of a distinctively British capitalism, and discussing the contemporary discursive remaking of a ‘global Britain’. It notes the use of the IPE of social practice to reveal the tensions and contradictions of British hyperflexibility.
Alex Gekker, Sam Hind, Sybille Lammes, Chris Perkins and Clancy Wilmott
This concluding chapter stresses the implications of arguments made by
authors in the different sections of the book; highlighting possible broader
research questions surrounding digital mapping and temporality that arise.
In particular, in relation to the first section of the book, it suggests
research might usefully attend to relations of spatiality and temporality,
focus on the difficulties of distinguishing between the ephemeral and
epochal, and investigate temporal consequences stemming from layering
implicit in digital mapping. From the second section, it suggests research
might attend more to the possibilities of resistance in the face of
technological inevitability, that research might focus on methods for
understanding affordances arising in the stitching together of everyday
memories in a transient technological age, and suggests we might focus more
on places than on spaces in that context. From the final section, it
suggests that conceptual, material and anticipatory logics underpinning the
organisation of time in digital mapping demand attention. Together, these
directions highlight the profoundly social consequences of a shift towards
The increasing range and mobility of platforms and devices supporting digital
maps has opened space for change; everyday routines are disturbed and
reflexively modified while the landscape of technical infrastructures shift.
In this, digital technologies, such as digital maps, are beginning to anchor
everyday life and a myriad of mundane temporalities. In this chapter, a
brief outline of cartographic theory contextualises the value of practice
theory in addressing the extent to which digital maps anchor everyday life
and the process by which they do so; a historical limitation in cartographic
theory. Applying a practice theory lens to three examples of anchored
temporality, this argument is empirically grounded. The chapter serves to
practically illustrate how a practice theory might be applied and the value
it may add in addressing relationships between digital map use and the wider
shifting temporalities of everyday life.
This contribution unpacks the notion of ‘real-time’ and explores
‘asynchronicity’ as a way to explore temporality in the nexus of urban
dashboards. It is argued that attempts to annihilate time as a constraining
factor in mapping the urban metabolism bypass the creative and oftentimes
messy role of ‘smart citizens’ in shaping their own living conditions.
Real-time, in fact, may be at odds with smartness and city life. Notions of
asynchronicity can sensitise us to the hidden assumptions and potential
fallacies in the rhetoric about real-time, and help to evoke a more engaging
role of citizens as ‘city hackers’ with a sense of collective ‘ownership’.
Evaluation of recent investigations of urban dashboards is followed by an
analysis of the term real-time, building on Barbara Adam’s typology of time.
The chapter concludes with some reflections on the implications of the
real-time trope, and how asynchronicity provides an alternative heuristic of
the real-time smart city.
Alex Gekker, Sam Hind, Sybille Lammes, Chris Perkins and Clancy Wilmott
This introductory chapter situates ensuing arguments about the relations
between mapping and temporality made by the contributors to this collection.
It deploys two cases: (1) the film Back to the Future, and (2) the rise of
digital mapping, to exemplify complex aspects of these relations and to
highlight the ways in which temporality, as well as space, makes a
difference in digital times. A grounding of temporal thinking is deployed to
explore the intellectual forces that underpin different ways authors in the
book reflect on time as against space in this context. A justification is
provided for the sectional layout into ephemerality/mobility, stitching
memories, and (in)formalising, and basic introductions to subsequent chapter
arguments are made.
This chapter discusses how Kate McLean uses mapping as part of her
artistic-based research into smellscapes. McLean investigates how smell can
be mapped when traversing environments in ‘smell walks’ through cities and
using gathered olfactory data. Her work is mainly concerned with the
ephemerality of smells and how to visually capture this volatility in and on
smell maps. These maps are produced as an assemblage of digital technologies
and manual techniques, such as drawing and painting. Lammes and Perkins
discuss with her how olfactory mapping foregrounds many different
temporalities and how it brings us new temporal – as well as spatial –
Examining the growing interest in the mapping of ‘flows’, in terms of its
historical context and contemporary import, this chapter proposes that such
practices reflect and reinforce a theoretical discourse of protean fluidity
(with an often quasi-metaphysical tenor). All too frequently, this discourse
is left under-analysed; taken for granted as both an empirical banality and
transcendental certainty. The metaphor of fluidity, it is argued, has
considerable utility, especially in relation to the new modalities of
cartography arising from Geographic Information Systems (GIS). However, this
aid to understanding needs to be recognised as a particular way of spatially
representing time, one that may normalise certain ideological precepts.
A conceptual framework for considering mapping projects as they change
Everyday users depend on maps as stable bases by which to navigate their
lives, but map theorists have recently pointed out how fluid and dynamic
maps can be. This chapter proposes a conceptual model for studying the
dynamism of online mapping. Drawing on Sloterdijk’s concepts of bubbles,
spheres and foams, the chapter suggests a means by which contingency and
temporal variability can be conceptualised. Taking maps as ‘bubbles’ in an
actor-network of 'foam', it demonstrates how they draw together
different data within assemblages of producers and users. To illustrate how
this model works, the chapter examines ‘crisis mapping’ as online
collaborations where volunteers create maps to help understand and respond
to natural disasters and political conflicts. It shows how these projects,
like bubbles in foam, depend upon internal substance; contingent
relationships with assemblages of actors; and the quality of their
interface, for their continuing utility through time.
This chapter considers the implications of recent developments around
object-oriented philosophy, the ontological turn and new materialism for the
study of maps. Drawing a line from critical cartography to contemporary
debates of non-representational and performative mapping, it argues for an
approach that goes beyond textual or representational readings to think
about how maps invent, affect and perform. With regards to time, this means
an examination not of its representation, but of how maps themselves produce
particular temporalities. A case study of the PathoMap describes how digital
visualisations in the ‘smart city’ help to produce a regime of preparedness.
As ‘device’, the map establishes a rhythm with the city, from emergence, to
detection, to intervention; closing down the horizon of possible futures. In
contrast to this pre-emptive elimination of uncertainty, it is suggested
that a critical object-oriented cartography can point to the potential of
maps to prompt the speculative provocation of possibility.