This chapter analyses Philip’s journey and arrival in England, early public appearances and the wedding in Winchester. He cultivated an identification with his new kingdom, and his English subjects soon claimed him as English not Spanish. The clothes the royal couple wore, their symbolic use of the Cathedral, the wording of their vows and order of the ceremony, and their positioning next to each other encoded the differences and tensions between English and Spanish aspirations for the marriage, in light of the ‘problem’ of female rule. It examines the tensions between Philip’s Spanish and English households, born of jealousy and the desire for intimacy, and how through polyvalent signalling he sought to appeal to Habsburg aspirations while appeasing indigenous sensibilities.

in Mary and Philip
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The marriage of Tudor England and Habsburg Spain

The co-monarchy of Mary I and Philip II put England at the heart of early modern Europe. This positive reassessment of their joint reign counters a series of parochial, misogynist and anti-Catholic assumptions, correcting the many myths that have grown up around the marriage and explaining the reasons for its persistent marginalisation in the historiography of Tudor England. Using new archival discoveries and original sources it argues for Mary as a great Catholic queen, while fleshing out Philip’s important contributions as king of England. It demonstrates the success and many positive achievements of this glittering dynastic union in everything from culture, music and art to cartography, commerce and exploration. Philip and Mary’s negative reputation derives from a particular version of English identity and reflects confessional differences in early modern English history. The acceptability of Mary’s foreign marriage will continue to reflect the evolving relationship between Britain and Europe, and its cultural politics. Moving from the commercial and strategic interests served by Anglo-Spanish alliances, it analyses the negotiations and marriage contract, Mary’s government, the Act for the Queen’s Regal Power, the Wyatt rebellion, the co-monarchy, gynophobic polemic, court culture and ceremony, bilingual lexicography, portraiture and print, and the historical (mis)fortunes of this glittering dynastic match.

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in Mary and Philip
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Opening with the commercial ties between England and Spain, this chapter underlines the Habsburgs’ awareness of England’s strategic importance in securing the maritime link between Spain and the Low Countries. This triangular trade was key to containing France and maintaining hegemony. Mary was seriously discussed on at least three occasions as a potential Habsburg bride. In this context, xenophobia and foreign usurpation were repeatedly invoked in the face of a likely female accession. Ultimately Mary’s rise to power was built on her riches and crucial support within the Privy Council as well as personal popularity. Witness confusion at her coronation reflected the uncertainties produced by her unprecedented status as England’s first regnant queen.

in Mary and Philip
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London, 18 August 1554

Philip and Mary’s entry into London on 18th August reflects the complexity of their reign. Organised by a group of aldermen, including Richard Grafton, Protestant printer of the Great Bible, and John Heywood, Catholic poet and dramatist, it registered the multivocal responses of a city having a plurality of faiths that cut across and were intertwined with commercial and political interests. An anecdote from John Foxe about London’s reception of their new king is shown to be part of a more ambivalent iconography that responded to commercial imperatives while flattering the king with an image in which the crown is delivered into his hands by a figure representing both Mary the queen and the queen of heaven.

in Mary and Philip

Historians have struggled to understand the co-monarchy of Mary and Philip and how it functioned in practice, too often attributing commonplace misogyny to agents all too aware of the competing axes of gender and power. Assumptions about Mary’s lack of concrete engagement in ruling have left the impression of the co-monarchy as a vacuum, where in fact she was engaged and assiduous, imposing her will in the face of opposition at times from councillors or her co-ruler. Having analysed the political success of their rule, the argument turns to the cultural exchanges and influences of the union, including the first Spanish-English language-teaching manual, portraits and other forms of image-making that projected their co-monarchy on the international stage.

in Mary and Philip

Wyatt’s revolt in 1554 crystallises the web of interconnected patriotic and religious motivations enveloping mid-Tudor subjects. Mary faced an outpouring of polemic as convinced evangelicals went into exile. The speed, topicality and volume of these publications presented new challenges to rulers across early modern Europe. The queen’s image was contested very publicly. Metaphors of her as the Virgin Mary or mother of the people were countered by biblical anti-heroines like Athalia and vitriolic images of sexual betrayal, with Philip and the Spanish cast as rapists. Despite the Act for the Queen’s Regal Power, passed after the revolt, assuring the property rights of holders both Catholic and Protestant of ex-monastic property, this link between property, sovereignty and gender haunted the reign.

in Mary and Philip
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The conclusion reviews the findings of the main body of the book and sets them in a wider frame. It addresses their meaning and the broader meaning of monarchy in the context of the coming of the Revolution, recalling Louis XVI's journey to Normandy in 1786 and the attitudes of the deputies of the Estates General and the National Assembly towards the king. It brings together themes running through the work to position this book as part of the 'new court history' and of revisionist political history of France more broadly.

in Death and the crown
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Ritual and politics in France before the Revolution

In May 1774, Louis XV died, triggering a sequence of rituals unseen in fifty-nine years. This book explores how these one-in-a-reign rituals unfolded fifteen years before the Revolution. From the deathbed of Louis XV, the book covers his funeral, the lit de justice of November 1774, and the coronation of Louis XVI and related ceremonies in June 1775, relating them all to the politics of the day. Threads of continuity emerge from this closely woven narrative to form a compelling picture of these ceremonies in the dynamic culture of 1770s France. Light is shed on the place of monarchy, the recall of the parlements and the conduct of the coronation. This study provides an overview of the current state of the field of ritual studies in English and French, situating ritual in relation to court studies as well as political history. It covers court life, the relationship between the monarch and the parlement, the preparation of large-scale rituals and the ways in which those outside the court engaged with these events, providing rich detail on this under-researched period. Written in a clear, lively style, this book is the ideal text for the non-specialist and, as each chapter deals with one ritual, it lends itself readily to undergraduate teaching of topics around monarchy, court society, ritual, and politics, including the Maupeou coup. More advanced students and specialists on the period will find new perspectives and information presented in an engaging manner.

Louis XV fell ill with smallpox at the end of April 1774. His deathbed attracted crowds to Versailles and was followed through public announcements and rituals in Paris. This chapter compares the king's conduct on two previous occasions when he had thought he would die, at Metz in 1744 and after the Damiens attack in 1757, and concludes that Louis XV – not ill-defined factions – controlled the conduct of his deathbed in 1774.

in Death and the crown