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Murray Stewart Leith and Duncan Sim

Scotland is often viewed as a rather ‘macho’ society, although research suggests that things are changing. Nonetheless, gender is still an issue in terms of female representation in politics and the boardroom, as well as in senior levels of management, although women play a crucial role in the workforce overall. This chapter explores the position of women within Scottish society and the changes that have been made and that are currently taking place.

in Scotland
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Murray Stewart Leith and Duncan Sim

Sport plays an important role within Scottish life, not least as a focus of national identity. Although Scotland is not an independent state, it has its own international football, rugby and cricket teams and competes independently at the Commonwealth Games. Scotland has played a significant part in the development of sport, particularly within football and in golf, with the world headquarters of golf being at St Andrews. This chapter explores the role that sport plays within Scottish life and in helping to sustain a separate and distinct sense of Scottish identity.

in Scotland
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Murray Stewart Leith and Duncan Sim

In the same way that many English people have migrated to Scotland, many Scots have followed the road south. There are substantial Scots communities in England and this chapter explores their ongoing relationship with Scotland. This relationship was brought into focus in 2014 as Scots living outside Scotland but in the rest of the UK could not vote in the independence referendum. We also look at the attitudes towards Scotland held within England and if there are strains in the relationships between these two nations in particular.

in Scotland
Murray Stewart Leith and Duncan Sim

We move on to discuss more specific aspects of Scottish identity, using ideas such as those of Benedict Anderson, Michael Billig, Tom Nairn and Anthony Smith. We look at how the Scottish nation can be and is defined and, using data from the census and social attitudes surveys, how individuals within that nation define themselves. Are Scots increasingly Scottish, still British or simply ‘not English’? We assess the various layers of identity that exist, the extent to which a Scottish identity is growing at the expense of a British one and the longer-term implications of this. The existing social data is complemented by our recent studies of Scots throughout Scotland, and the contemporary Scottish diaspora itself.

in Scotland
Murray Stewart Leith and Duncan Sim

This chapter looks at the importance of heritage within Scotland and the development of the country’s tourist industry. There is a significant literature on tourism, its relationship to national identity and to the way in which Scotland ‘sells itself’. The chapter therefore relates back to earlier chapters. In many respects, Scotland has led in certain tourist developments such as genealogical research and ‘roots’ tourism and we explore and explain this.

in Scotland
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Murray Stewart Leith and Duncan Sim

This chapter is intended to provide a short historical background to Scotland. It discusses the formation of the kingdom and its battle to remain an independent state. We discuss at what point were we then all ‘Scots’? We consider the various factors that acted to unify the country as well as those that acted to divide. We are not historians and we do not seek to compete with those who are, but we feel it is important to discuss how the country came into being and how it maintained its identity through both the Union of the Crowns in 1603 and the Treaty of Union in 1707. This background will be important to understand some of the long-running social tensions that echo through to today and still impact upon contemporary social and political Scotland.

in Scotland
Meir Hatina

The chapter explores the euphoria and optimism that the events of 2011 spread among Arab liberals, whose long and stubborn struggle to expand the sphere of personal freedom and democracy was confirmed as not being pointless and unproductive. It also examines the disappointment and frustration in their ranks in light of the success of Islamic movements such as the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and al-Nahda in Tunisia in harvesting the political capital generated by these events.

in Arab liberal thought in the modern age
Author: Meir Hatina

Arab liberal thought in the modern age provides in-depth analysis of Arab liberalism, which, although lacking public appeal and a compelling political underpinning, sustained viability over time and remains a constant part of the Arab landscape. The study focuses on the second half of the twentieth century and the early twenty-first century, a period that witnessed continuity as well as change in liberal thinking. Post-1967 liberals, like their predecessors, confronted old dilemmas, socioeconomic upheavals, political instability, and cultural disorientation, but also demonstrated ideological rejuvenation and provided liberal thought with new emphases and visions. Arab liberals contributed to public debate on cultural, social, and political issues, and triggered debates against their adversaries. Displaying such attributes as skepticism, ecumenism, and confidence in Arab advancement, they burst onto the public scene in questioning the Arab status quo and advocating alternative visions for their countries. Their struggle for freedom of religion, secularism, individualism, democracy, and human rights meant more than a rethinking of Islamic tradition and Arab political culture. It aimed rather at formulating a full-fledged liberal project to seek an Arab Enlightenment. This book fills a major gap in the research literature, which has tended to overlook Middle Eastern liberalism in favor of more powerful and assertive forces embodied by authoritarian regimes and Islamic movements. The book is essential reading for scholars and students in the fields of Islamic and Middle Eastern studies, intellectual history, political ideologies, comparative religion, and cultural studies.

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Oriental despotism
Meir Hatina

This chapter discusses the liberal endeavor to reduce the power of the state, and liberals’ intensive engagement with personal liberties and the empowerment of individualism in the Arab landscape. The defying liberal discourse regarding Arab politics also revealed internal tensions on such issues as the individual’s relations with the collective, the features of the socioeconomic structure, and the inclusion of Islamists in the democratic process.

in Arab liberal thought in the modern age
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Meir Hatina

The concluding chapter summarizes the Arab liberals’ alternative agenda for relations between individual and state, religion and politics, Islam and the West. The confidence of the liberals in the rightness of their path did not dispel doubts about whether the contemporary Arab peoples were ready for enlightenment. However, these liberals still sought internal renewal and continued to search for Arab enlightenment.

in Arab liberal thought in the modern age