History, radicalism, and John Foxe

This book addresses a perennial question of the English Reformation: to what extent, if any, the late medieval dissenters known as lollards influenced the Protestant Reformation in England. To answer this question, this book looks at the appropriation of the lollards by evangelicals such as William Tyndale, John Bale, and especially John Foxe, and through them by their seventeenth-century successors. Because Foxe included the lollards in his influential tome, Acts and Monuments (1563), he was the most important conduit for their individual stories, including that of John Wyclif (d. 1384), and lollard beliefs and ecclesiology. Foxe’s reorientation of the lollards from heretics and traitors to martyrs and model subjects portrayed them as Protestants’ spiritual forebears. Scholars have argued that to accomplish this, Foxe heavily edited radical lollard views on episcopacy, baptism, preaching, conventicles, tithes, and oaths, either omitting them from his book or moulding them into forms compatible with a magisterial Reformation. This book shows that Foxe in fact made no systematic attempt to downplay radical lollard beliefs, and that much non-mainstream material exists in the text. These views, legitimised by Foxe’s inclusion of them in his book, allowed for later dissenters to appropriate the lollards as historical validation of their theological and ecclesiological positions. The book traces the ensuing struggle for the lollard, and indeed the Foxean, legacy between conformists and nonconformists, arguing that the same lollards that Foxe used to bolster the English church in the sixteenth century would play a role in its fragmentation in the seventeenth.

Myths are sacred stories; stories which embody a culture’s most significant ideas. As a ‘mythic vision,’ these ideas are demarcated in the cinematic text as moments of discernible difference. Moments which demand we stop and contemplate the sacred’s imposition in the continuity of the film. This chapter explores Darren Aronofsky’s Noah (2014) in terms of its mythic vision, a big-budget mainstream Hollywood biblical epic retelling of Genesis 6–9. But this chapter will also consider Ridley Scott’s Exodus: Gods and Kings (2014), a film which, rather than a ‘mythic’ vision, tries to recontextualise the story of the Exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt into a desacralised retelling, a film which denies the mythology inherent in the narrative. By discussing Scott’s Exodus, Aronofsky’s mythic vision in Noah is highlighted in relief.

in The Bible onscreen in the new millennium
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Autobiography and the imaginary self

The third chapter addresses Garrel’s narrative period (1979–1988), which begins with the confessional film L’Enfant secret. It explores the relationship between Garrel’s autobiographical approaches and Surrealism, especially the writings of André Breton, with whom the director expresses a strong affinity. A second aspect assesses Garrel’s role as historian. Two films from this period – Elle a passé tant d’heures sous les sunlights (1985) and Les Ministères de l’art (1989) – directly invoke the lives and works of other film-makers of Garrel’s generation. The chapter considers how Garrel integrates the personal histories of directors such as Jean Eustache, Chantal Akerman and Jacques Doillon with a broader history of a loose cinematic school that evolved in the aftermath of the New Wave.

in Philippe Garrel
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Genre and the birth and childhood

This chapter examines various post-2004 adaptations of the Nativity and how they innovate within or deviate from the conventions of the biblical epic as it has traditionally been understood. Starting with the historical biblical epics from the silent era through to The Passion of the Christ (2004), it will outline the factors that have tended to demarcate biblical epics from other genres. It will then use these elements a lens to examine five recent biblical films about the birth and childhood of Jesus. These films all take different approaches to examining the stories of the birth and childhood of Jesus. Whilst many of the above elements of biblical epics are present, none of these films sit squarely within all of the confines of the genre. Moreover, the manner in which they deviate from those conventions and adopt alternative approaches points towards new possibilities for the genre.

in The Bible onscreen in the new millennium

The final chapter addresses the most recent period in Garrel’s cinema, marked by his engagement with the experiences of younger generations. Since La Naissance de l’amour (1993) Garrel has produced eight films at the time of writing and is currently working on his ninth, Le Sel des larmes. This chapter identifies several distinct threads that together form loose subcategories within this body of work. The first concerns the memory and legacy of May 68, explored in the works Le Vent de la nuit (1999) and Les Amants réguliers (2005). The second concerns films that confront issues relating to young couples and the trauma of separation, including Sauvage Innocence (2001), La Frontière de l’aube (2008) and Un Été brûlant (2010). A third thread relates to the films La Jalousie (2013), L’Ombre des femmes (2015) and L’Amant d’un jour (2017). Filmed in black and white and each with a duration of approximately seventy-five minutes, the works have been described by Stephane Delorme as a ‘trilogie freudienne’. Consideration is given to the comparatively lighter tone that emerges in the latter films which hint at a cautious optimism on the part of Garrel.

in Philippe Garrel

This chapter seeks to contribute with theoretical and empirical reflections on the recent phenomenon of biblical telenovelas produced in Brazil. Since the consolidation of television in the 1960s telenovelas have become the main cultural product in Brazil and Latin America – especially those from Globo Corporation, which attract all the prime-time audience. But during recent years another channel, Record TV, has been receiving some attention for trying a different strategy in producing biblical telenovelas. Since 2010, Record TV has produced telenovelas and series focused on biblical narratives to attract a new audience. Within that context we aim to analyse these narratives in relation to: (1) the focus on a niche audience; (2) the fact that the network Record is owned by representatives from the ‘Universal Church of the Kingdom of God’; (3) the rise of a more conservative audience; and (4) the biblical narrative as a rising genre.

in The Bible onscreen in the new millennium
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This book provides a comprehensive study of the cinema of Philippe Garrel, placing his work within the political context of France in the second half of the twentieth century (including the tumultuous events of May 68) and the broader contexts of auteur cinema and the avant-garde. Challenging the assumption that Garrel’s oeuvre exists in direct continuity with that of Jean-Luc Godard, François Truffaut et al., this study locates a more radical shift with Garrel’s predecessors by observing the eclecticism of the influences absorbed and exploited by the director. In doing so, it explores contexts beyond French cinema in order to interpret the director’s work, including avant-garde movements such as the Situationists, Surrealism, Arte Povera and the American Underground. Acknowledging Garrel’s role as an unofficial historian of the so-called ‘post-New Wave’, the study equally considers his relationship with other members of this loose film school, including Jean Eustache, Chantal Akerman and Jacques Doillon. The book is structured according to both a chronological and thematic reading of Garrel’s oeuvre. This method introduces different conceptual issues in each chapter while respecting the coherence of the various periodisations of the director’s career.

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in Philippe Garrel

This chapter evaluates lollard views on preaching and conventicling preserved in Foxe’s Acts and Monuments. It begins by surveying the variety of lollard views regarding preaching, which was, for the majority of Foxe’s lollards, inextricably linked to the role of the priest. It also investigates the role of conventicles in lollard ecclesiology, as presented in Foxe’s text. The chapter pays close attention to the martyrologist’s editorial choices, moving from radical material he allowed to remain intact or even strengthened by a marginal comment, to beliefs he attempted to mitigate, moving finally to an opinion he cut out altogether. From there, it discusses the late-sixteenth- and seventeenth-century readings of these lollard practices, and closes by arguing that lollard views on preaching and conventicling provide a good litmus test for evaluating the way Foxe selectively edited Acts and Monuments.

in Lollards in the English Reformation

This chapter analyses lollard views of the priesthood and tithing found in Foxe’s Acts and Monuments. It begins by looking at the nature of the lollard critique of clergy, revealing that despite the nuanced categories modern scholars have given to ‘anticlericalism’ (including distinctions between ‘literary anticlericalism’, ‘hyperclericalism’, and ‘antisacertodalism’), Foxe’s portrayal of the priesthood is dominated by calls for an abolition of a separate priestly class. It then hones in on two radical concepts in the lollard narratives: clerical disendowment and the notion of temporal possessions more generally, and the idea of episcopacy. Beyond the ministers themselves, Foxe’s book describes a range of opinions concerning the tithes which maintained them, from scepticism to outright denunciations. It confirms that these ideas, preserved by Foxe’s tome, offered historical precedents for separatists and puritans as well as conformists in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

in Lollards in the English Reformation