Joe Gerlach

Nodes, ways and relations; co-ordinates and vectors for thinking through everyday mapping and participatory cartographies. This chapter attempts a narration of a day’s mapping with OpenStreetMap (OSM) in the town of Witham, England. Animating the mundane movements, sensibilities and temporalities charged through mapping, the chapter is a modest intervention in recent critical cartographic discourse that in itself, looks to chart a re-enchantment with maps of late. Thinking alongside Henri Bergson, the chapter suggests that the time-travelling potential of vernacular mapping lies not so much in the vestiges of a chronological temporality, but in the durational lines of cartography.

in Time for mapping
Open Access (free)
Heterogeneous temporalities, algorithmic frames and subjective time in geomedia
Pablo Abend

The integration of time has been a neglected topic in Western cartography since geography’s main concern has been to codify spatial knowledge and bring it in a stable form. This has clearly changed with the contemporary hybrid media forms of the digital age, which offer new and multiple ways of integrating time with mapping. The chapter suggests that the main distinction between analogue maps and digital geomedia can be found in the way time is mediated. Using the example of geomedia, like the Aspen Movie Map and Google Earth, the chapter highlights three modes of temporal integration: (1) temporality by animation, (2) temporality by navigation, and (3) algorithmically shaped temporal frames. These already heterogeneous temporalities of geomedia are juxtaposed to subjective perceptions of time, embedded in the real‐time usage of geomedia, augmented with individual memory, and mingled with a longing for the past.

in Time for mapping
Open Access (free)
Digital photography and cartography in Wolfgang Weileder’s Atlas
Rachel Wells

This chapter argues that Wolfgang Weileder’s artwork Atlas (2011–present) reveals much about our relation to contemporary photography and its use online, particularly with regard to digital maps. By considering Atlas within Weileder’s wider oeuvre and recent theories concerning both ‘time-space compression’ and ‘the acceleration of the instant’, the chapter argues that the artwork presents a Proustian emphasis on the ‘slicing’ of time and memory across spatial referents. Thus, the artist’s ‘constructive’ photographic practice – to use Walter Benjamin’s term – suggests that the contemporary capitalist culture of the instant image is producing a form of illiteracy in experiencing the nexus between time and space. Maps and digital maps, even when Dionysian in character, can fail to capture this Benjaminian sense of ‘space-crossed time’. In contrast, Weileder’s oeuvre is read as offering unsentimental reference points for locating our own spatio-temporal condition.

in Time for mapping
Open Access (free)
Cartographic temporalities

The digital era has brought about huge transformations in the map itself, which to date have been largely conceptualised in spatial terms. The emergence of novel objects, forms, processes and approaches in the digital era has, however, posed a swathe of new, pressing questions about the temporality of digital maps and contemporary mapping practices, and in spite of its implicit spatiality, digital mapping is strongly grounded in time. In this peer-reviewed collection we bring time back into the map, taking up Doreen Massey's critical concern for 'ongoing stories' in the world, but asking how mapping continues to wrestle with the difficulty of enrolling time into these narratives, often seeking to ‘freeze’ and ‘fix’ the world, in lieu of being able to, in some way, represent, document or capture dynamic phenomena. This collection examines how these processes are impacted by digital cartographic technologies that, arguably, have disrupted our understanding of time as much as they have provided coherence. The book consists of twelve chapters that address different kinds of digital mapping practice and analyse these in relation to temporality. Cases discussed range from locative art projects, OpenStreetMap mapping parties, sensory mapping, Google Street View, visual mapping, smart city dashboards and crisis mapping. Authors from different disciplinary positions consider how a temporal lens might focus attention on different aspects of digital mapping. This kaleidoscopic approach generates a rich plethora for understanding the temporal modes of digital mapping. The interdisciplinary background of the authors allows multiple positions to be developed.

Art and the temporalities of geomedia
Gavin MacDonald

This chapter looks at the ways in which artists working with geomedia technologies have exposed and exploited the complex temporalities of digital mapping. In doing so, the chapter first deals with traces of movement in locative media art practices of the early to mid-2000s. It then addresses the appropriation of remote sensing imagery and Street View imagery by artists. The aim is to challenge the idea that geomedia's only temporal effects are ones of timelessness. Crucial to this challenge is the separation of two, often conflated, versions of timelessness that are frequently ascribed to cartography and new media. The chapter further argues that the stress on atemporality in studies of the aesthetics and cultural impact of geomedia, and the conflation of the cartographic and technological/cultural versions of timelessness in particular, have been too prone to reading a surfeit of temporal markers as a collapse of temporality.

in Time for mapping
Irish farming knowledges
Caroline Crowley

This chapter explores the ways in which different forms of farming knowledges are produced, disseminated and influence farmers' willingness or ability to make changes to their farming systems. It proposes two concepts from Morgan and Murdoch: a simple classification of forms of knowledge, and the idea of networks to help understand relations among possessors of knowledge and the process of disseminating knowledge. Many farmers have exhibited a strong buy-in to the productivist discourse since the 1960s. It concurs with farmers' understandings of their role as producers of food commodities using conventional methods. The main external, expert sources of information used by farmers are Teagasc (a semi-state agency), and the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (DAFF). Teagasc provides advisory, training and research services to farmers, the agriculture and food industry and the wider rural community.

in Spacing Ireland
Abstract only
Renegotiating the Irish border
Sara McDowell

The changing economic fortunes of both the Republic of Ireland (the South) and Northern Ireland (the North) since 2007 have had a significant effect on the everyday geographies of people living on both sides of the Irish border. This chapter explores the ways in which socio-economic change can influence how people conceptualise and negotiate a political border that has become increasingly permeable. It begins with a brief discussion of the meaning and significance of national boundaries before moving on to document the ebb and flow of movement across the Irish border since its creation in 1920. The chapter reviews the economic tipping point and its impact on cross-border mobility. It discusses some of the issues surrounding the everyday geographies of trans-border communities. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the permeability of the border and its ramifications for the relationship between the two parts of the island of Ireland.

in Spacing Ireland
Abstract only
Spaces and spectres of Ireland after NAMA
Cian O’Callaghan

This chapter provides a short synopsis of the ghost estate issue, detailing the factors that contributed to the phenomenon. It describes the way in which the estates have been invoked as symbolic spaces within the national narrative of collapse, and the State's response in the form of the National Assets Management Agency (NAMA). The presence of ghost estates in the Irish landscape exemplifies the problems associated with the Celtic Tiger property boom. From the early 1990s, Ireland experienced a significant transformation of its demographic profile, coupling natural population growth with a reversal in migration trends. As a result of the property and banking crises, these estates went from being half-built in the sense that they were not yet completed to being half-built in the sense that they would never be completed.

in Spacing Ireland
Ireland’s grassroots food growing movement
Aisling Murtagh

A rise in food growing outside the farm has occurred in tandem with Ireland's economic decline as ordinary citizens seek to grow food in alternative spaces such as allotments and community, school and home gardens. This change in Irish society appears to be more than just a reaction to the collapse of the Celtic Tiger. This chapter describes the rise of Ireland's grassroots food growing movement and a typology of food growing projects. The broader dynamics of these initiatives is finally considered in order to explore if they are simply the reactionary space of a minority or whether they might become a more sustained resistance. The food growing movement, which is both urban and rural, is driven by individual leaders, groups of citizens, or individuals with involvement in food and non-food activities, such as food producers, community activists and other professionals.

in Spacing Ireland
The spa in Celtic Tiger Ireland
Ronan Foley

This chapter begins with a short discussion of the history and development of the modern spa with a focus on Ireland and how that history in part reflects wider narratives of boom and bust. It describes the micro-geographies of spa sites alongside wider discussions on classification and regulation to show how wellness and tourism geographies overlap in such spaces. The chapter looks at the modern spa through the lens of therapeutic landscapes and critically discusses the different practices identifiable at the sites, both of health/wellness but also of conspicuous consumption. In looking at the rise and uncertain future of the modern Irish spa, one could consider it a revealing representation of the excesses that characterised the Celtic Tiger era. The chapter concludes by showing how applying a critical therapeutic landscapes approach can enable us to see spas as sites where complex and contested social relations are acting out in place.

in Spacing Ireland