Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

The modern global humanitarian system takes the form it does because it is underpinned by liberal world order. Now the viability of global liberal institutions is increasingly in doubt, a backlash against humanitarianism (and human rights) has gained momentum. I will argue that without liberal world order, global humanitarianism as we currently understand it is impossible, confronting humanitarians with an existential choice: how might they function in a world which doesn’t have liberal institutions at its core? The version of global humanitarianism with which we are familiar might not survive this transition, but maybe other forms of humanitarian action will emerge. What comes next might not meet the hopes of today’s humanitarians, however. The humanitarian alliance with liberalism is no accident, and if the world is less liberal, its version of humanitarian action is likely to be less liberal too. Nevertheless, humanitarianism will fare better than its humanist twin, human rights, in this new world.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister

In this interview, Celso Amorim, former Brazilian foreign minister, discusses changes in global governance and their likely impact on international cooperation. He critically reflects on his experiences in positioning Brazil on the world stage and democratising human rights. And he considers whether the influence of Brazil and other Southern states is likely to continue expanding.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

This chapter examines the relationship between Canberra and Tokyo from a distinctly Australian perspective by disaggregating the Australia-Japan bilateral relations from the simplistic ‘allies of the US’ context (‘quasi-alliance’) to demonstrate how the two countries have developed a hugely strengthened bilateral security relationship to a significant degree independent of the US context. It argues, that this so-called ‘strategic partnership’ is a new form of security alignment that does not neatly fit traditional alliance paradigms, before analysing the wider contexts within which the bilateral strategic partnership exists.

in Japan's new security partnerships
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in Japan's new security partnerships

This chapter analyses Japan’s Southeast Asian security partnerships from a Southeast Asian perspective. Japan’s re-entering East Asia with a combination of increasing trading ties and economic development (ODA) initiatives in the 1970s and 1980s, slowly furthered economic growth and prosperity in many East-Asian countries as well as Japan - a mutually beneficial relationship that largely remained un-securitized. Beginning with the second Abe administration in 2012, Japan began to include security components in a number of bilateral relations with countries in the region. This chapter divides countries in Southeast Asian countries by their level of economic dependence on China and their threat perception vis-à-vis China, which is the core factor in explaining the rationale for why and how they engage with Japan, and shapes Southeast perspectives of Japanese-Southeast Asian security partnerships.

in Japan's new security partnerships

This chapter analyses a practical case of EU-Japan out-of-area security cooperation, and the first example of operational security cooperation between the EU and Japan, namely the counter-piracy mission off the coast of Somalia. This chapter introduces the main reasons and different stages of involvement of the Japanese government, the MSDF and JCG in the Somalia counter-piracy mission. It then analyses the extent to which this mission provided opportunities for closer EU-Japan security cooperation, and what significance this case has for future EU-Japan security cooperation more broadly. It argues that this mission provided an ideal opportunity for Japanese government representatives and SDF personnel to learn the complexities of multilateral security coordination, and operational cooperation between European and Japanese forces, while simultaneously producing a deepening of trust and understanding.

in Japan's new security partnerships

This chapter analyses the recent intensification of EU-Japan security relations from a European perspective. While recognizing shortcomings, including the expectations gap between the EU and Japan that has frequently been problematized, this chapter emphasizes the significance of the recent changes in Japanese security policy, such as the 2013 National Security Strategy, as evidence that Japan does consider the EU and NATO to be important security partners. The chapter analyses the domestic debate and government initiatives, as well as Japan’s expectations for the EU-Japan Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA), and the enablers and inhibitors of closer security ties. This chapter argues that while Japan Europe security cooperation has so far excluded hard security, the changing international security environment and a narrowing perceptions gap should allow deeper cooperation in non-traditional security fields, because Japan would benefit from the European experience of forging consensus in shaping international rules and norms.

in Japan's new security partnerships

This chapter analyses the recent intensification of India-Japan security ties from an Indian perspective. It argues, that given India’s long held position as the leader of the non-alignment movement, the turnaround of India-Japan security relations has been quite remarkable. The relationship now ranges from the sale of amphibious aircraft and civilian nuclear cooperation to Japan becoming a permanent member in the Malabar naval exercise. The chapter identifies the shared core strategic interests as the area of energy security, the security of Sea-Lanes of Communication (SLOCs) in the Indian Ocean region and addressing the power disequilibrium in Asia. She argues, that India’s growing economic power has made India an increasingly important regional and global player, and building security partnerships with major powers in the region and throughout the world are a major tool for realizing the country’s potential on regional and global stages. Since 2000, Japan has become one of India’s most trusted partners in the region and an essential part of India’s so-called “Look East” and “Act East” foreign policy doctrine, and the chapter analyses India’s incentives to further deepen its security ties with Japan.

in Japan's new security partnerships
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in Japan's new security partnerships

This chapter analyses Japan’s initiatives promoting regional security multilateralism in East Asia since the end of the Cold War. It argues that Japan promoted multilateral security structures through initiatives such as the Nakayama proposal, the Hashimoto Doctrine, and its advocacy of Northeast Asian Cooperation (NEA 3), as well as initiatives in response to specific security challenges such as maritime piracy in East Asia. These initiatives are significant because Japan often acted independently of the US, and set up institutions that sometimes did not include US participation. For Japan, the core reasons for promoting security multilateralism were to reassure Japan’s neighbours that Tokyo would not become a threat to their security again, to hedge against potential US abandonment, and, ironically, to help keep the US engaged in the region.

in Japan's new security partnerships