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Alison I. Beach, Shannon M.T. Li and Samuel S. Sutherland

An ad hoc extension, comprising sporadic annual entries, begins with the author’s first-hand experience of being cured from a spiritual malady by a drink from a chalice holding the tooth of the monastery’s founder. The author also discusses the monastery’s involvement in and experience of larger events in the mid-twelfth century, including the Second Lateran Council, the Second Crusade (and St. Bernard’s journey through Germany), and an extended period of famine and scarcity that compelled the monks to sell many prized works of art and other goods. A brief hagiography on St. Ratpero, whose oratory was located on land owned by Petershausen, is included. Several chapters that describe the death of religious women and men and other later entries offer a rare acknowledgement in the CP of religious women and men of various sorts at Petershausen, including those the chronicler identifies as hermits and inclusi. This section closes with a dramatic description of the fire that destroyed the monastery in 1159. In offering an eyewitness account of the extent of the devastation and the efforts of the monks to rebuild, the chronicler spins a narrative of trauma that lays the blame with the monks for their many moral failings.

in Monastic life in twelfth-century Germany
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Alison I. Beach, Shannon M.T. Li and Samuel S. Sutherland

A fifth book, partly the work of a continuator, begins with the continued efforts of the monks to rebuild after the fire. After a brief description of Frederick Barbarossa and the Alexandrian Schism, most of the rest of the book focuses on Abbot Conrad (r. 1127–1164) and his exploits, including some pointed critiques of his many missteps.

in Monastic life in twelfth-century Germany
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Alison I. Beach, Shannon M.T. Li and Samuel S. Sutherland

Book Four continues the history of the monastery from the death of Theodoric to the author’s own time with an eclectic collection of colorful stories continuing many of themes introduced in Books Two and Three – conflicts with bishops and lay patrons, internal politics, relations with daughter houses, and various miracles. Twice the bishop-proprietor Ulrich I of Constance attempts to intervene in the election or abdication of an abbot, spurring the monastery to assert its libertas in active resistance. Hints of profound troubles in the wake of reform are introduced, including violence in the abbey, economic mismanagement, and failed attempts to found and reform other houses. The monastery is miraculously spared from fire on multiple occasions.

in Monastic life in twelfth-century Germany
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Alison I. Beach, Shannon M.T. Li and Samuel S. Sutherland

Book One tells of the origins of the monastery, beginning with a hagiographical account of the monastery’s founder Bishop Gebhard II of Constance (r. 979–995). After an imaginative retelling of Gebhard’s illustrious ancestry and early life, the author describes his founding of the monastery, including information about the provisions of land and laborers, the original art and architecture of the church, the procurement of a papal privilege, and the acquisition of saints’ relics. The first book concludes with stories from Gebhard’s later years and an account of his death and burial at Petershausen.

in Monastic life in twelfth-century Germany
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Alison I. Beach, Shannon M.T. Li and Samuel S. Sutherland

The brief sixth book opens with the election of Abbot Gebhard I (1164–1171) and continues with sporadic entries in various hands, ending in 1203. Donations by and conflicts with lay patrons are discussed in brief. A short entry informs us that Abbot Gebhard, who was possibly the original chronicler, was deposed.

in Monastic life in twelfth-century Germany
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Alison I. Beach, Shannon M.T. Li and Samuel S. Sutherland

Book Three begins with the arrival of the Hirsau reformers at Petershausen, including a brief biography of the reforming abbot Theodoric (r. 1086–1116) and a detailed description of his material renovation of the monastery. An extended series of miracles, visions, and anecdotes follow, many of which serve as subtle commentaries on the success and challenges of the reform. The book then describes the efforts of the monks to establish and manage daughter houses, which presents many setbacks and challenges for the monastery. In the midst of these efforts, the investiture controversy emerges again, but this time at the local level. Conflict and even a short exile ensue when a pro-imperial bishop is installed at Constance. After the conflict ends in Theodoric’s favor, an account of his death follows, commemorating his unique character and contributions to the library.

in Monastic life in twelfth-century Germany
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Alison I. Beach, Shannon M.T. Li and Samuel S. Sutherland

Book Two describes the subsequent growth of the monastery and the various challenges it faced along the way. At many points, the monks come into conflict with the bishops of Constance or their own lay patrons, often with God or St. Gebhard intervening or exacting vengeance on their behalf. The book also includes an account of the early Investiture Controversy, which is heavily biased against the emperor and intriguingly problematic in its reconstruction of specific events. The book closes by introducing the Hirsau Reform.

in Monastic life in twelfth-century Germany
Heredity research and counselling at the Clarke School, 1930–1960
Marion Andrea Schmidt

From the 1930s to the 1960s, the Clarke School heredity division worked with leading figures of eugenics and medical genetics, e.g. geneticist Madge Macklin, or the NIH. During this time, the school became a leading centre of hereditary deafness research – a position it would lose by the 1960s, when genetics became part of large, laboratory biomedicine. Even though it was part of larger developments in eugenics and genetics, the school retained its unique small-school character of heredity research and counselling. Education, medicine, and eugenics intertwined in its mission to turn deaf children into normal, productive, and responsible citizens – which also meant discouraging them from marrying a deaf partner. While in the 1930s and 1940s, eugenicists and oralist educators could agree on this, by the 1950s and 1960s, geneticists became more confident about predicting reproductive outcomes, and believed that such decisions should be left to the individual.

in Eradicating deafness?
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From Bell to biodiversity
Marion Andrea Schmidt

Looking at genetic deafness research from the late nineteenth into the early twenty-first century, in a way, we have come full circle. After a century of professionals urging deaf people to be aware of their genetic make-up, Deaf activists and scholars indeed do so – and have replaced the notion of defective genes with the more inclusive message of biodiversity. Linguists, social scientists, historians, architects, biologists, and educators have made the case for Deaf gain, the idea that deafness is not a deficit, but a positive trait that has enabled its bearers to make valuable contributions to culture and art, linguistics and architecture. Genetics and theories of evolution play an important role in these claims, and Deaf identity has come to be defined as an ethnocultural identity based also on shared genes. Comparing genetic deafness research to other medical-technological ‘solutions’ for deafness (e.g. cochlear implants), the conclusion offers an analysis of current debates over diversity and an explanation of why some people see the potential eradication of deafness as medical progress and others see it as a threat to their culture, language, and community.

in Eradicating deafness?
Genetics, pathology, and diversity in twentieth-century America

Is deafness a disability to be prevented or the uniting trait of a cultural community to be preserved? Combining the history of eugenics and genetics with deaf and disability history, this book traces how American heredity researchers moved from trying to eradicate deafness to embracing it as a valuable cultural diversity. It looks at how deafness came to be seen as a hereditary phenomenon in the first place, how eugenics became part of progressive reform at schools for the deaf, and what this meant for early genetic counselling. Not least, this is a story of how deaf people’s perspectives were pushed out of science, and how they gradually reemerged from the 1950s onwards in new cooperative projects between professionals and local signing deaf communities. It thus sheds light on the early history of culturally sensitive health care services for minorities in the US, and on the role of the psycho-sciences in developing a sociocultural minority model of deafness. For scholars and students of deaf and disability studies and history, as well as health care professionals and activists, this book offers new insight to changing ideas about medical ethics, reproductive rights, and the meaning of scientific progress. Finally, it shows how genetics came to be part of recent arguments about deafness as a form of biocultural diversity.