Open Access (free)
Sven Rubenson, Amsalu Aklilu, Shiferaw Bekele, and Samuel Shiferaw 

A variety of matters are dealt with in the documents of the year 1880, but two issues receive special attention. The first issue is the attempts made by the Italian government and its representatives to secure and expand their settlement at Aseb by means of agreements with local rulers, many of which seem to lack proper documentation on the Ethiopian part. The second issue is found in letters that deal with the problems of identifying the purposes and roles of European explorers and their respective fate, in particular the arrest of Giovanni Chiarini and Antonio Cecchi, as well as the death of the former and the release of the latter.

in Colonial Powers and Ethiopian Frontiers 1880–1884
Open Access (free)
Sven Rubenson, Amsalu Aklilu, Shiferaw Bekele, and Samuel Shiferaw 

Among the issues treated in the documents of 1881, the two most important are, first, the attempts made by Emperor Yohannis to define the borders of his country: these attempts involve Gerhard Rohlfs as German arbitrator, his mission to Egypt to obtain new bishops for Ethiopia, and his engagement on behalf of the Ethiopian community in Jerusalem. The second important issue is King Minīlik’s increasing attempts at an independent foreign policy and control over the increasing Italian interests in Ethiopia, documented in his letters to King Umberto of Italy. The increasing role of the import of arms for the Ethiopian rulers is also clearly visible.

in Colonial Powers and Ethiopian Frontiers 1880–1884
Open Access (free)
Sven Rubenson, Amsalu Aklilu, Shiferaw Bekele, and Samuel Shiferaw 

The letters of 1882 include a number related to internal conflicts between regional rulers and opposition to the Emperor. They also contain documents related to the struggle between Egypt and the colonial powers for control over the Gulf and the trade routes, and the increasing involvement of the most important ruler in the area, the Sultan of Awsa, Maḥammad Ḥanfadhē. The documents include the first letter by an Ethiopian ruler written in a European language.

in Colonial Powers and Ethiopian Frontiers 1880–1884
Open Access (free)
Sven Rubenson, Amsalu Aklilu, Shiferaw Bekele, and Samuel Shiferaw 

The documents from 1883 are strongly dominated by correspondence between local rulers along the coast and in Danakil and the representatives of the Italian government. The most important documents are the treaties between Italy and Awsa and Italy and Shewa, clearly revealing the interdependence between the rulers of Shewa and the rulers of the Danakil, the basic issue being secure and free trade routes and Italian hegemony over other European interests. A number of letters from Emperor Yohannis to European rulers show the increasing Ethiopian impatience with continued European support for Egypt after its defeat in the wars of the 1870s, and an interesting letter demonstrates the Emperor’s concern over the growing cooperation between King Minīlik and the Italians.

in Colonial Powers and Ethiopian Frontiers 1880–1884
Open Access (free)
Sven Rubenson, Amsalu Aklilu, Shiferaw Bekele, and Samuel Shiferaw 

The most important documents of the year 1884 are the letters from Emperor Yohannis to Queen Victoria and her representatives and the so-called Hewett treaty of 7 June 1884, which finally ended the Ethio-Egyptian war that had started in 1875. Several documents from this year reveal the strong relations between Italy and Shewa, the role of Count Pietro Antonelli, and the tensions created by these leading up to the famous Wichale treaty and the subsequent Italian attempt to conquer Ethiopia. Other documents relate to an increased French presence in the Gulf, including a number of rather suspect so-called agreements, eventually leading up to the French colony of Djibouti.

in Colonial Powers and Ethiopian Frontiers 1880–1884
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The evolving relationship between infection and length of stay in antibiotic-era hospitals
Sally Sheard

Hospital acquired infection (HAI] - referred to as ‘nosocomial’ infection in US terminology - emerged as a specific policy concern in the mid-twentieth century, although it has a much longer lineage. This chapter uses a comparative Anglo-American perspective to repositions the debate on the history of HAIs, which has to date been focused on scientific understanding of infection through the use of evolutionary paradigms, the development of new approaches such as clinical epidemiology and the enduring fascination with the discovery, use and abuse of antibiotics and associated rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Some of this historical research has marginalised or ignored (by choice or ignorance) the key issue that health care is an economic, as well as a scientific-clinical activity. These lacunae are particularly evident when historians discuss how responses to HAIs resulted in the formation of protocols and teams, which they invariably articulate as comprised of clinical/technical staff (surgeons, physicians, nurses, microbiologists and epidemiologists). There has been minimal recognition that hospital administrators and managers could (and did) play key roles in these developments because of the significant and increasing impact of HAIs on hospital costs, arising in part through concerns about length of patient stay, and through the roles of insurance companies in the Unites States and economists at national policymaking levels in the UK.

in Germs and governance

Colonial powers and Ethiopian frontiers 1880–1884 is the fourth volume of Acta Aethiopica, a series that presents original Ethiopian documents of nineteenth-century Ethiopian history with English translations and scholarly notes. The documents have been collected from dozens of archives in Africa and Europe to recover and present the Ethiopian voice in the history of Ethiopia in the nineteenth century. The present book, the first Acta Aethiopica volume to appear from Lund University Press, deals with how Ethiopian rulers related to colonial powers in their attempts to open Ethiopia for trade and technological development while preserving the integrity and independence of their country. In addition to the correspondence and treatises with the rulers and representatives of Italy, Egypt and Great Britain, the volume also presents letters dealing with ecclesiastical issues, including the Ethiopian community in Jerusalem.

Religion, trade, and the challenges of English colonialism
Rachel Winchcombe

This chapter traces changing English approaches towards exploration, settlement, and colonisation across the sixteenth century. It explores the tension in English travel and colonial literature between the desire to seek wealth and riches in the New World and the need to advance the glory of God, identifying the roots of this tension in the 1550s, its abandonment in the 1570s, and its re-emergence in the 1580s. By analysing this process and identifying what precipitated it, this chapter argues that by the end of the sixteenth century a unique brand of English colonialism had emerged that placed both religious evangelisation and commercialisation at its centre. This mixed approach to colonisation projects would continue to be a hallmark of English activity in the New World well into the seventeenth century.

in Encountering early America
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Using the past
Marguerite Dupree, Anne Marie Rafferty, and Fay Bound Alberti

This volume shows how history can enrich our understanding of current issues of hospital infection control, including AMR, and inform perspectives on the future. For example, while efforts to develop new classes of antimicrobial drugs are undoubtedly important, they should not overshadow the financial, personnel and governance methods necessary to maintain high standards of infection control in the hospital environment, which have proven successful in recent years. The essays in this volume have shown the value historical understandings of the past can bring to modern day concerns, as well as the ways history has been misused to justify the notion of ‘progress’.

in Germs and governance
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Rachel Winchcombe

The conclusion synthesises the main arguments of the book and what this means for the historiography of early America. It concludes by suggesting that the English approach to settlement and colonialism in the New World at the turn of the seventeenth century was the result of decades of translating and transforming images of America that first came from continental Europe, of utilising and adapting intellectual and cultural frameworks of understanding to explain the existence of this new and shockingly different world, of experiencing and responding to both English colonial failure and success, and of incorporating the peoples and environments of America into the mental world of early modern England in an attempt to persuade English men and women to make the difficult decision to cross the Atlantic in search of a new life. It was in the sixteenth century that the English first grappled with what the discovery of 1492 meant for them, both in terms of how they came to understand and define the new lands across the Atlantic and how they came to craft their own colonial approach that would challenge their rivals and restore the English realm to economic and political health. The sixteenth-century English involvement with America, although at times sporadic and limited to a small group of interested parties, was foundational, establishing and defining the ways in which English colonialism would proceed in the New World.

in Encountering early America