The shifting boundaries of politics in Norwegian healthcare
Anette Fagertun

This chapter explores how the relationship between labour relations, healthcare policy, and institutional arrangements shape care work through a combined focus on situated work experiences in the feminised and increasingly multi-cultural municipal healthcare sector and on policy discourse and policy framing in Norway. The chapter identifies and describes labour relations, labour experiences, and the part-time employment ‘culture’ in the care services, and the ways healthcare services and care work are envisioned in recent policy. Development in the labour market over the last decade, spurred by amongst other thing migration and the welfare state ‘crisis’, has changed the institutional conditions of labour. Based on examination of political discourse and on data from fieldwork in three Norwegian municipalities, the chapter aims at a multi-level analysis of labour relations in the municipal care sector in order to show the ways a ‘shifting institutional ecology’ opens for precarity of labour in Norway. The key argument of the chapter is that the shifting boundaries of politics have created problems where labour falls outside of the policy frame, something that contributes to a debasing of (care) work as a political category and to the emergence of precarious labour, often naturalised as flexibility, in the public care services.

in Intimacy and mobility in an era of hardening borders
Anne-Marie Fortier

This chapter focuses on how certainties of citizenship are reproduced and naturalised in citizenisation, starting with two of citizenship’s key principles: the wilful autonomous subject and birthright. The chapter unravels how choice and obligation are entangled in ‘birthright’ citizenship that is founded on racialised heteropatriarchal reproductive familial relations that decidedly emplace ‘new citizens’ within the national territory and extracts them from their diasporic belongings, while it presumes a subject who not only chooses citizenship but also who has chosen migration. The chapter further unpicks the ‘value’ of citizenship by scrutinising how the good life, happiness and ‘luck’ function in the idealisation of British citizenship as the source of happiness. The chapter’s final section turns to ‘ordinary’ citizens who reveal how migrants become otherwise throughout the citizenisation process, and ends with Sala, a ‘new’ citizen who untangles the constitutive and necessary postcolonial presence within citizenship, Britishness and the British state. Ultimately, the chapter goes at the heart of the split between becoming British and identifying as other. But this split is not irreparable. When turning the lens of migration more squarely on citizenship, migrant-citizens are actively reconfiguring what it means to become (British) citizen.

in Uncertain citizenship
Charles the Bald, Lothar I and the Vikings
Simon Coupland

Carolingian society was profoundly militarised, not only the aristocracy and royalty but also the Church. The west Frankish King Charles the Bald (840–77) has been harshly criticised by contemporaries and some modern historians for what is perceived as his lack of military success against the Viking incursions. It is the contention of this chapter that this judgement is misguided, and has been unconsciously shaped by the militarised mindset of the time. When these blinkers are removed and Charles’ reign re-examined, the king’s resourcefulness, ability and determination in effectively ridding his kingdom of the Scandinavians is revealed.

in Early medieval militarisation
Looking at marriage migration regimes in Austria and Germany through the perspective of women from rural Kosovo
Carolin Leutloff-Grandits

This chapter looks at the functioning and effects of border regimes in relation to marriage migration from rural Kosovo to Western Europe, and here especially to Germany and Austria, which restricted the opportunities for marriage migration considerably over recent years. The restrictions are based on gendered and ethnicised assumptions of marriage migration as being patriarchal and a threat to German and Austrian society. Shedding light on a rather unexplored perspective, the chapter focuses on young women in Kosovo’s south, who aim to move to Western Europe via marriage, and the barriers they meet and struggle to overcome. It explores how prospective migrants position themselves towards marriage migration, and how they experience the increasingly restrictive European border regime in terms of family and marriage migration. It furthermore questions the meaning of polity borders in such intimate realms as marriage. The chapter argues that with the new policies and measures concerning marriage migration, Western European states externalise their borders and put enormous pressure on prospective marriage migrants. These borders, partly gendered, can be bodily felt, often postpone migration, and may alienate partners. Contrary to the stated aims of such policies, these measures do not necessarily support women in their free choices in intimate realms, but interfere in intimacies and restrict their agency. Still, women also act as agents by relying on family support in order to realise their imaginations, or by choosing exit strategies when the pressure on them becomes too burdensome or realities are too far away from their imaginations.

in Intimacy and mobility in an era of hardening borders
Live-in Romanian badanti caring for the elderly in southeast Italy
Gabriela Nicolescu

The chapter explores the multiple worlds in which migrants live while working as badanti, live-in home careworkers for the elderly in an average-sized town in southeast Italy. The chapter focuses on descriptions of day-to-day activities of migrant careworkers but also on spectacular events such as the organisation of ‘The Party of the Counter Hour,’ an event set up by the protagonist of this chapter, a Romanian careworker, with support from a local Italian cultural association and the author. The central argument of the chapter is that the juxtaposition of different regimes of life and work makes explicit the clash within the experience of migrant careworkers’ worlds. In Italy, migrants inhabit the houses of their employers, but paradoxically, live in separate worlds from these. At the same time, while in Italy, migrant careworkers constantly think of and invest in a particular household and extended kin group in Romania. These long term economic, financial, and moral ties make even more visible the multiple worlds in which migrants live while working as badanti in Italy.

in Intimacy and mobility in an era of hardening borders
Burials of ‘military men’ between 300 and 500
Benjamin Hamm

This chapter aims to show profound changes in the military burial culture between the fourth and early sixth centuries in various regions of the western empire. The focus here is on aspects of the external grave design and the variance of the equipment with weapons and clothing components through the period under consideration. Fundamentally, there is a difference between the standardised burials of the fourth century, which communicate the military affiliation of the deceased indirectly through clothing and gravestones. By contrast, the graves of the fifth and early sixth centuries allude directly to military capacities and a military participation of large parts of the population by furnishing the burial extensively with grading combinations of weaponry, e.g. spatha, shield and lance.

in Early medieval militarisation
The role of pronatalism in the development of Czech childcare and reproductive health policies
Hana Hašková and Radka Dudová

The chapter analyses policy debates to explore the ways in which pronatalism has influenced the formation of reproductive and childcare policies in the Czech Republic. It shows that the pronatalist framing has been activated in the construction of reproductive and childcare policies to enhance the demographic and economic sustainability of the state by means of its internal reproduction and control, since the formation of Czechoslovakia. The analysis shows that how the situation at a given time is defined has been more important for determining policies than the actual birth rate trend. The chapter argues that the pronatalist framing was often used to increase the salience of a problem and the need to accept the policy solution defined within other frames. However, pronatalist framing also brought new meanings to the definition of the problem. While it has sometimes been instrumental in promoting certain measures advocated by feminists, it has always built on the gendered obligation to reproduce, has intruded on the bodily and sexual citizenship of some women, LGBTQ+ people, and persons of marginalised ethnicities and nationalities, and has buttressed the current limitations of the reproductive rights.

in Intimacy and mobility in an era of hardening borders
Abstract only
International law at the movies
Gerry Simpson

The chapter documents the capacious and immensely promising newish discipline of cine-legality, represented in this collection. The archive – what Gabrielle Simm calls ‘the panorama of world cinema’ – is immense, and in this chapter, the author tries to identify some fruitful directions it might take.

in Cinematic perspectives on international law

Cinema has been an object of study for the social sciences for some time now. The relationship between law and cinema has been the subject of a certain number of reflections by jurists who work essentially within a national legal framework, and from the true genre that courtroom movies have become. One can point also to studies linking cinema and international relations. In short, the relationship between international law and cinema has never been the subject of a specific book. The objective of the present book is to show what image of international law and its norms is conveyed in films and series. Beyond a strictly legal analysis, the ambition is to take into account, in a broader perspective marked by interdisciplinarity, the relations between international law, cinema and ideology. The volume is aimed at a readership made of scholars, researchers as well as practitioners, in the field of international law, and related fields, all of whom will benefit from being introduced to a variety of perspectives on core international legal questions present in movies and TV series. Further, the volume can also be used with advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students studying international law, politics and international relations because it will provide the possibility of introducing students to a variety of perspectives on key issues in international law present in movies and TV series.

Anne-Marie Fortier

This chapter traces the imperial and colonial legacies underpinning current citizenship and citizenisation laws and policies in Britain. This long view of British citizenship reveals a lot about the imperial and racial impulses of Western European citizenships more broadly, while it takes seriously historical developments that are specific to Britain. The chapter argues that Britain is a global institution that has always been part of the international political and economic landscape where citizenship is continuously redefined. The relative late arrival of a specifically national British citizenship was more about citizenising Britain than it was about redressing a historical weakness; it was about equipping the British state with the technology of citizenship in the process of further hardening the borders of British nationality and nationhood.

in Uncertain citizenship