By the outbreak of the First World War there was talk of the services offered by the state working in harmony with voluntary organisations. It was notable in such discussions that ‘philanthropy’ was rarely mentioned. In the war itself there was a huge increase in the number of charities and some attempt to give them a voice in the National Council of Social Service. Post-war the tone of discussion changed in ways damaging to philanthropy. It was seen as ‘Victorian’, condescending. The new language was about citizenship, democracy, social work, voluntary organisations and volunteering. But if philanthropy was in many ways redundant there were attempts to revive it, most notably by Elizabeth Macadam in The New Philanthropy (1934) and by William Beveridge in Voluntary Action (1948). Neither had much impact. It was easy to imagine that philanthropy and philanthropists would soon belong to the past. Revival came with growing criticism of the welfare state and, from the 1970s, the renewed confidence in markets that led eventually to the implementation of a neoliberal agenda. It was less a distrust of markets, more the accumulation of vast individual wealth that markets had made possible, that opened the door for another ‘new philanthropy’.

in The reputation of philanthropy since 1750

The introduction of civil partnerships in Ireland is discussed. This chapter further examines one of the major concerns for marriage equality campaigners who highlighted that civil partnerships did not offer equivalent rights to civil marriage, especially in relation to the children of such partnerships.

in The history of marriage equality in Ireland

An overview of the Constitutional Convention which was established to ensure ‘participative democracy’ in considering changes to the Irish Constitution. This chapter examines how in April 2013 delegates overwhelmingly called for a constitutional change to extend civil marriage to same-sex couples and, significantly, to include amendments for parental rights in this regard. The chapter also describes the beginning of a great controversy, popularly referred to as ‘Pantigate’, which placed the issue of marriage equality centre stage in an open debate about homophobia.

in The history of marriage equality in Ireland

This chapter lays out in graphical form the results of word searches for ‘philanthropy’ and ‘philanthropist’ in the Burney Collection of Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Newspapers and the British Library Newspapers Archive on Gale NewsVault and the collections on British Periodicals available on ProQuest. I have also carried out in-depth work on The Times and the Observer and Manchester Guardian and on the Daily Mail from its start in 1896. The results show the growth of use of the words in the second half of the eighteenth century, a slight dip in the early nineteenth century, followed by exponential growth in the 1830s and 1840s to reach a plateau of high usage through to the end of the century. There is then sharp decline through to the 1940s, followed by increasingly rapid growth from the 1980s.

in The reputation of philanthropy since 1750
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This chapter outlines the main problems the book will address, surveys the national historiographies of Germany, England, France, Italy and Spain and identifies the problems highlighted therein. While national historiographies have different preoccupations, we note the widespread influence of German writing of the nineteenth century and of French regional studies in the twentieth. There are also common themes: free proprietorship and personal freedom and their impact (or not) on emerging institutions; lordship and its many varieties, with a tendency to treat the local through the structures and relationships of great estates; the importance of archaeology and its increasing provision of new data.

in Neighbours and strangers
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This chapter describes the events on polling day, and the statistics relating to voter turnout and to the number of yes votes. The results are examined and an assessment of how the people’s decision was finally implemented into law follows.

in The history of marriage equality in Ireland
Britain and beyond

Most people now associate philanthropy with donations of money by the rich to good causes. It has not always been so. The reputation of philanthropy since 1750 explores how our modern definition came about and asks why philanthropy and philanthropists have always been as likely to be criticised as praised. Based on original research in newspapers, periodicals, novels and letters, the book provides a compelling account of a shift from philanthropy being a feeling of love of humankind to one where it became heavily engaged in opposing slavery and reforming prisons, both of them political and contentious issues. On the positive side Britain was praised as the most philanthropic country in the world and something the nation was proud of. But the ‘telescopic philanthropy’ that Charles Dickens lambasted, a philanthropy that focused on those far away to the neglect of the poor at home, was under the spotlight. Equally contentious was the relationship between philanthropy and political economy: to the critics philanthropy led to the creation of a dependency class, it did more harm than good. After almost sinking out of sight in the mid-twentieth century, dismissed critically as ‘Victorian’, philanthropy in the twenty-first century has regained a high profile.

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This chapter provides basic orientation, with essential information on the physical geography and political history of the period 750–1000, outlining the main political trends in Francia, Italy, England and Spain. Though a period of extreme political instability at the highest levels of kings and emperors, complicated by the long-term impact of invaders from outside, many of the regions within kingdoms sustained an identity over many centuries. The chapter continues with a brief survey of available primary source material for the study of local societies (which is extended in the Appendix). It surveys charters, estate records, narratives (including annals, chronicles and hagiography), capitularies, law texts and liturgy.

in Neighbours and strangers
Priests as neighbours in early medieval local societies

This chapter explores the position of early medieval priests within local rural societies and the influence they had on the social cohesion of rural settlements. As pastors who taught and preached, they communicated ideas of good and bad behaviour towards relatives, neighbours and God, and in their capacity as confessors and advisors, they played an important role in settling disagreements between members of their flocks. Priests were in a unique 'hinge' position to transmit new rulings from the bishop or the royal court to local audiences, because they were generally capable of reading and understanding Latin, and were trained to translate and rephrase sophisticated knowledge into vernacular messages understandable to illiterate audiences. Priests did not only spend their days praying, preaching, performing rituals or reading books. They were firmly rooted in the lay world and often seem to have been members of local families. Their ministry usually came with landownership and, like other landowners, priests bought, sold and gave land and moveable goods. They were also active in writing charters for local people, in effect performing notarial services for them.

in Neighbours and strangers
Living and working together in the shadow of Brexit

Stories from a migrant city argues that a rethink of how the terms ‘immigration’, ‘migration’, ‘immigrant’ and ‘migrant’ are imagined and conceptualised is long overdue. It shows how moving away from a racialised local/migrant dichotomy can help to unite people on the basis of common humanity. The book also takes to task the idea that cosmopolitanism is necessarily an elite worldview: on the contrary, not only are axes of racialised difference often reinforced by the actions of economic and political elites, but, in certain spaces and at particular times, non-elite people of all backgrounds show themselves to be at ease with such difference, albeit that this is interwoven with ongoing racisms and the legacies of colonialism. Using a biographical approach and drawing on over one hundred stories and eight years of research by the author in the English city of Peterborough, Stories from a migrant city addresses the question of what Peterborough (and indeed England) stands for in the Brexit era, and to whom it belongs. Taken as a whole, the book’s tales from the city’s homes and streets, its 1970s and 1980s satellite New Towns, its older central neighbourhoods and its warehouse and food factory workplaces, together with its engagement with the cultural productions of residents, challenge middle-class condescension towards working-class cultures. They also reveal how the often-ignored stories from this and other provincial cities can be seen as gifts to richer, metropolitan places.