In 1538, in the midst of the Reformation in England, Henry VIII decided to provide new Lenten regulations. His intervention which relaxed some of the more stringent dietary prohibitions was not hastened by any religious change of heart but born out of a socio-economic problem – the skyrocketing price of fish during Lent and the consequent starvation of the poor. From hereon in, until the last Lenten proclamation of 1662, the matter of Lent became a battleground of warring economic and regional factions, disruptive religious ideologues, exasperated government officials and parliamentary intervention. Adding to the problem was the widespread evasion of the regulations both by the lower classes priced out of the Lenten market and by the wealthier segment of society able to buy their way out. This chapter traces the changing nature of Lenten proclamations, Privy Council orders and local regulations. In doing so it highlights the inability of the state to enforce its will on a reluctant population despite incessant cajoling, the evolving severity of Lenten punishments, failed attempts to devolve authority to the localities and the clash between the remnants of ‘Popish’ rituals and the new Protestant emphasis on state-sanctioned fast days.
The United States Sanitary Commission and the development of the Red Cross
In 1861, President Lincoln authorised the creation of the United States
Sanitary Commission (USSC) – a body comprising humanitarian volunteers whose
purpose was to complement the work of the Union’s Medical Bureau by sourcing
supplies, inspecting hospitals and providing general succour to wounded
soldiers. Two years later, when news of the first Geneva Conference reached
the ears of the USSC’s leaders, they naturally assumed that the Committee of
Five had been inspired by the American example to pursue its aims.
Historians of the USSC have repeated these claims, despite the comprehensive
rejection of the idea of an American origin for the Red Cross Movement by
several leading Red Cross scholars. This paper will re-examine the issue of
American influence on the Red Cross Movement by turning away from the idea
that the USSC inspired the Geneva Convention. Instead, the focus here will
be on how the performance of the USSC captured the imaginations of the first
Red Cross volunteers, and contributed to the fundamental reshaping of the
Committee of Five’s conception of the Red Cross by the dawn of the twentieth
Banning them, securing us offers a rich and expansive exploration of the politics
of proscribing – or banning – terrorist organisations in Britain. The book calls
attention to the remarkable, and overlooked, role of proscription debates and
decisions in contemporary UK politics. Using primary empirical research, the
book shows how parliamentary processes of proscribing ‘illegitimate’
organisations is as much a ritual performance as it is a technique for
countering political violence. This ritual, we argue, is a performance of
sovereignty and powerful framing of Britain as a liberal, democratic, moderate
space. Yet, it represents a paradox too. For proscription’s processes have
limited democratic or judicial oversight, and its outcomes pose significant
threats to democratic norms, human rights, political dissent and citizenship
more broadly. The book breaks important new ground on the politics of
terrorism, counter-terrorism, security and democracy. It will be widely read by
researchers and students across Security Studies, International Relations,
Political Science, History, Sociology and beyond.
This chapter explores the way in which the British Red Cross Society
responded to the crisis that affected the flow of relief parcels to British
prisoners of war in Germany after the summer of 1940. It argues that the
Society was slow to adjust to total war conditions. It was ill equipped to
deal with the intensity of public criticism, and found itself outmanoeuvred
by a Government that was intent on evading its responsibility for the
crisis. It was also slow in identifying ways out of the crisis, or in
forging close working relations with the non-anglophone elements of the Red
Cross Movement, notably the International Committee of the Red Cross and
neutral national Red Cross societies.
In 1974 the British Red Cross (BRCS) conducted an ‘Attitude Survey’, the
analysis of which concluded that the public knew much more about the
organisation’s wartime than peacetime activities, and that the number of
younger members was in decline. Three decades earlier, the BRCS had faced a
crisis in identity, leading to the repositioning of the charity at a time of
tremendous political, social and economic change, including much more
emphasis on international humanitarian aid. Indeed, in 1947 the BRCS’s
Public Relations Department stated that the public needed to know that the
‘British Red Cross still exists’. To what extent did the end of the Second
World War and the launch of the National Health Service in 1948 affect
policy, philanthropy, volunteerism and public perceptions of the charity?
Drawing on the wider historiography on postwar humanitarianism, the Welfare
State and voluntarism, this chapter analyses the way in which the BRCS
adapted, and co-operated with State services and other charities between
1946 and 1974.
Extending Laura Cull’s question of whether performance thinks to caring, this chapter reimagines the relationship between caregiver and cared for as one of improvisational moral performance that provides the means to not only understand the emergent dynamics and phenomena of care but also reorient our approach to teaching ethics and cultivating ethical behavior. A caring improvisation is a moment when we draw upon a set of rehearsed cognitive and bodily skills of inquiry and action to responsively perform care on behalf of the needs of others. This approach assumes that moral normativity is emergent rather than fixed thus requiring the caregiver to have developed attention skills as well as an openness or disponibilité toward others. The aesthetic approach found in the relatively recently developed field of performance philosophy provides a means to think about care ethics/theory in non-authoritative ways beyond traditional analytical and a priori approaches to morality favoured by Western philosophy.
An examination of Godder’s socially engaged art and participatory dance for Parkinson’s work
This chapter examines whether an aesthetics of care may redefine dance performance and a choreographer’s artistic process. It discusses this idea by exploring a specific symbiotic relationship between a community dance programme and a professional artistic production, both directed by the choreographer Yasmeen Godder. Godder’s Stabat Mater (now performed under the title Simple Action) is examined in relation to the company’s programme for people with Parkinson’s. The chapter argues that Stabat Mater is an illustration of a different way of thinking about arts and health engagement: it is not about care for participants who are ill, but about the responsive and attentive relationship between artist and participant. Care operates within Stabat Mater and the dance work, which involves audience participation, is seen as an outcome of how the Parkinson’s dance programme has influenced Godder’s artistic process and production. In other words, Stabat Mater, as a performance of care, has to be understood in the context of Godder’s artistic engagement with people who can be seen as vulnerable movers (traditionally seen as ‘cared for’), but who changed the way Godder thought about her work.
This chapter offers a reflection on two features of modern/contemporary
western humanitarianism: arrogance and compassion. The objective of the
chapter is to put forward and historicise arrogance, offering an ad hoc –
usable – definition, and to do the same with compassion. The chapter engages
with the historiography of this increasingly densely populated field,
offering reflections on the state of humanitarian history both within and
without this edited collection.
The American Red Cross in the last war of Cuban independence
Francisco Javier Martínez
This chapter takes one episode of Spain’s modern history as a case study to
move the focus of Red Cross historiography towards less rigid national and
colonial categories. It focuses on the relief initiatives carried out during
the last war of Cuban independence in 1895–8. It suggests that it was here
that the American Red Cross openly made its push for world domination of
humanitarian power, and challenged the model of colonial expansion practised
by other national societies under a model set up and controlled by the
International Committee of the Red Cross.
Clean Break, founded in 1979 by two women serving sentences in an English prison, has developed over the last four decades into an influential theatre, education and advocacy organisation, positioning narratives of women affected by the criminal justice system centre stage. In this chapter, Joan Tronto’s work on care, markets and justice ( 2009, 2013) informs my reading of Clean Break’s organisational practices as care. From its distinctive approach to developing new writing for theatre, to its enduring commitment to reach audiences through partnerships with criminal justice, cultural and voluntary sector organisations, Clean Break creates structures of care for women who have fallen beyond the reach of state systems of welfare: the subjects of stigma, regulation and punishment. In this chapter, I argue that Clean Break not only critiques the intersectional oppressions that shape the lives of many women who experience the criminal justice system but, through its responsive and interconnected practices, attends to a care deficit in society, integral to the company’s commitment to equality and justice.