The role of American buyers in establishing an Italian fashion industry, 1950–55
Sonnet Stanfill

By focusing on the role of the fashion buyer, this chapter confirms that, as had been the case for postwar Paris, the custom of North American buyers helped to develop Italy's nascent fashion system and place it firmly on the fashion map. Because a buyer's merchandise selections were the prism through which many North American women perceived European fashions and European style, the chapter places some emphasis on buyers' choices from the Italian seasonal offerings for the stores they worked for. It draws heavily upon the papers of Giovanni Battista Giorgini, held in the Archivio di Stato in Florence. The chapter also draws from the archives of the American department store chain I. Magnin, now held in the San Francisco Public Library. I. Magnin prided itself on the buying acumen of its staff. A surviving document, in the form of a television documentary transcript, explains I. Magnin's business approach.

in European fashion
Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

In the second half of the nineteenth century there were many parallels between the disciplines of history and anthropology. Both employed an empiricist methodology. This chapter briefly outlines the main currents of thought in anthropology. It examines the influence of two specific approaches that were to be fertile ground for historians: everyday life and symbolic anthropology, and ethnohistory. In the context of these approaches to history research and writing, the chapter also examines the key concept of 'ethnicity'. Two schools of thought within anthropology emerged in Britain and the United States. These schools were characterized respectively as social anthropology and cultural anthropology. Ethnohistorians particularly seek to bring into view the experiences and perspectives of indigenous and minority peoples in colonial contexts. One of the significant achievements of ethnohistory has been to approach all those engaged in cultural encounter as active agents who jointly determined the outcome.

in The houses of history
The problematic nature of the limited edition
K.E. Gover

In 2015 the Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, on the initiative of philosopher Christy Mag Uidhir, devoted a whole issue to printmaking. The chosen essay by philosopher K. E. Gover sets out to consider the limited edition from an ontological perspective.

in Perspectives on contemporary printmaking
A cultural biography of Red-White-Blue, from Hong Kong to Louis Vuitton
Wessie Ling

This chapter discusses the extent to which a Chinese export has played a part in the realities and identities of varied communities, as well as the re-fashioning of Chinese exports into a fashion commodity. It traces the origin and development of Red-White-Blue, and its connotations and cultural significance to Hong Kong and communities across several continents. The chapter unpacks how various communities adopted and (re)interpreted their versions of Red-White-Blue bags. It provides a discussion on Louis Vuitton's replica of this plaid bag. The chapter juxtaposes Western fashion institutions and Asian street culture, and examines the relationship of Chinese production to the European-American fashion system. The analysis draws on empirical and ethnographic research, including interviews with makers and users, and detailed readings of the contemporary global fashion scene as represented in the traditional press and on the Web.

in European fashion
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Types of banks and the risks they face
Mike Buckle and John Thompson

Banks are the most important category of financial institution, which provide intermediation services to the economy. This chapter focuses on the nature of banking and the operations carried out by banks. It examines the different categories of banking operations. For expository purposes, the chapter divides discussion of banking into six categories: retail banking, wholesale/investment banking, international banking, universal banking, Islamic banking and narrow banking. The process of financial intermediation can be deconstructed into four constituent parts: loan origination, loan funding, loan servicing, and loan warehousing. The process of securitisation separates loan origination to loan servicing from function loan warehousing so that after the loan is arranged, it is transferred to a third party. The chapter examines the risks faced by banks and how they are managed. The risks include: liquidity risk, market risk, payments risk/settlement risk, operational risk, credit risk, sovereign risk and legal risk.

in The UK financial system (fifth edition)
Jack Holland

This chapter uses the vehicle of American Movie Channel's The Walking Dead to explore one of the most fundamental questions we can ask as a species: what does it mean to be human? It begins by outlining the history and rise of the zombie genre. Then, the chapter explores how this relatively popular-culture penchant relates to IR and US world politics. Next, it analyses the discursive intervention of The Walking Dead, connecting the show's storylines with contemporary developments in American politics as well as more timeless issues of political theory. To do so, the chapter considers, further, the role of violence in understandings of humanity and human-ness and what it is that is at stake in struggles to contest these definitions. The Walking Dead makes a discursive intervention that highlights humanity's more problematic behaviours, nudging us to reconsider how we might act in the present.

in Fictional television and American Politics
Aura and reproduction in the post-print age
Clare Humphries

If Lambert’s text gives historical insight into changes as to the practices and values attributed to reproduction, Clare Humphries’ recent conference presentation provides a timely re-examination of Walter Benjamin’s famous text on reproduction – or more accurately, ‘reproducibility’ – especially his often-misrepresented notion of ‘aura’. It is also an excellent example of rigorously executed research motivated and informed by practice, as the author explains. Noting Benjamin’s own inconsistencies, Humphries arrives at the conclusion that aura arises within reproductive media themselves.

in Perspectives on contemporary printmaking
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The anatomy of a bitter divorce battle
Matt Qvortrup

This chapter pertains to the United Kingdom European Union (EU) membership referendum in 2016. It first traces the last days events which finally led to David Cameron announcing his resignation in the morning of 24 June 2016. Then, the chapter discusses the initial days of the campaign when a poll the 18 February 2016 Daily Telegraph showed 54 per cent for Remain and a mere 46 per cent for Leave. The signs of erosion of the Remain group were seen in the 16 March budget, which contained cuts to disability benefits as well as tax cuts for the wealthier. Wavering voters were not responding to the predictions of economic gloom presented by David Cameron and his allies. On 7 June, sensing that the economic argument had been exhausted, the UKIP leader NIgel Farage told ITV News, 'there is more to life than GDP'.

in Government by referendum
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Joseph Webster

This chapter takes as its ethnographic focus the Scottish independence referendum in 2014, examining the Orange Order campaign against a ‘Yes’ vote. The chapter opens with a discussion of the Order’s exclusion from the mainstream ‘Better Together’ campaign, and their decision to set up a rival campaign called ‘British Together’. Analytically, the chapter argues that the Order found itself well outside the mainstream of the Scottish independence debate because it refused to separate (unionist) politics from (Protestant) religion, a move that was mirrored in their insistence that the SNP was not only pro-independence, but pro-Catholic. The chapter goes on to argue that this logic left many Orangemen positioning themselves as latter-day Covenanters, fighting to maintain the heritage of the Protestant Reformation. For other Orangemen, the referendum and their campaign against independence led them to embrace the identity of latter-day loyalists, imagining themselves to be fighting (as in Northern Ireland) to maintain the integrity of the UK against republican enemies. This chapter concludes with an examination of Barth’s Ethnic groups and boundaries. The chapter critiques Barth by showing how Orangemen embrace reification and self-essentialism, suggesting that such actions cannot be dismissed as analytical category errors.

in The religion of Orange politics
Ben Cohen and Eve Garrard

An article by Mark Mazower for the journal World Affairs characterizes the concept of humanitarian intervention as 'dying if not dead'. Mazower's approval of the demise of humanitarian interventionism has been made explicit. There's a 'new realism', he says, that is welcome; again, the 'new maturity in international relations' is to be viewed positively. Since it is an elementary truth that an intervention that fails or makes things worse will not effect a rescue of those in need of one, accounts of the principle of humanitarian intervention invariably emphasize that unless there is a good prospect of success, intervention cannot be justified. But Mazower writes as if part of the new and welcome 'pragmatism', 'realism', 'maturity', is the wisdom 'that without willing the means, intervention leads to political and moral failure'.

in The Norman Geras Reader