Chapter 4 maps the complex machinery of how national interests of EU member states and Turkey are formed and communicated inside and outside the European Council. It focuses on the role of Brussels-based EU member state diplomats as permanent national lobbies during this process. Together with corporate lobbyists, these diplomats sculpt the terms and conditions of Turkey’s EU accession responsibilities during their twice-weekly meetings of the Council’s Working Party on Enlargement. Faced with pressures from advanced European capitalism, the everyday, (in)formal communicative practices of sovereignty by diplomats and lobbyists have actually driven Turkey away from accession. Whereas EU member state diplomats enjoy greater flexibility in performing their duties of diplomacy and lobbying, Turkish diplomats participate in the construction of Turkish national interests less than they might, due in part to how Turkey’s EU policy and accession negotiations are organised by the Ankara government. To remedy this, Turkish diplomats carved a wedge between Turkish and EU interests, instead of integrating them, to make their services useful. Their efforts come at a price, however, as they disengage from the Eurocracy, facing enduring problems of collocution.

in Diplomacy and lobbying during Turkey’s Europeanisation

Chapter 2 maps out the social topography of Brussels’ Europolitics and introduces key actors of Turkey’s Europeanisation, mainly from the Turkish side. These actors are identified as nobles and notables because of their prominent role during Turkish Europeanisation and because many proved resilient as effective negotiators, even when the EU–Turkey membership negotiations were de facto halted. The chapter also gives a historical overview of the negotiations since 2005 and explains the research and writing methodology.

in Diplomacy and lobbying during Turkey’s Europeanisation

Chapter 6 focuses on the production of the European Parliament’s annual reports on Turkey’s implementation of the internal reforms required for its EU accession. It considers reports and report-writing as a site where and medium in which EU and Turkish diplomats, bureaucrats and lobbyists negotiate their interests. It argues such reports are essentially political documents and they contribute to bureaucratic politics in both the EU and Turkey. Those who draft, circulate or influence their writing increasingly rely on them to sustain communication between the EU and Turkey. In return, political documents serve as the means through which actors maintain an enduring demand for their expertise. This human contact ultimately reveals complex negotiations over what matters most, for whom and to what end in Europe’s encouragement (or barring) of the Turkish membership as seen from within the European Parliament.

in Diplomacy and lobbying during Turkey’s Europeanisation

This chapter explores the impact of the Legal Aid and Advice Act 1949 and the post-1948 welfare state on providers of legal advice. It shows how the delays in fully implementing the 1949 Act had serious repercussions for charities trying to offer a free legal advisory service. Innovative approaches like the neighbourhood law centres also had difficulties in navigating funding streams and sustaining their services, particularly in the light of changes to local government funding in the 1980s and 1990s. The chapter also looks at the impact of the Benson Commission and the tensions between the Citizens’ Advice Bureaux and community work that sought to reach some of the neediest people.

in Lawyers for the poor
Open Access (free)
A surplus of ideas

When is the border between enough and too much crossed? When does a comfortable abundance become an oppressive surfeit? When does choice move from being a privilege to a burden? This book ends a series of three by the same editors which address these questions, exploring many aspects of overflow. These extremes might be the best way to characterize our world, populated by 8 billion people, hundreds of millions migrating and seeking refuge, where the obese outnumber the undernourished and middle-class homes are filled to bursting with goods and possessions. The consumer marketplace is driven into perpetual motion, as today’s valuables turn into tomorrow’s trash. Overflow, or perhaps surfeit, is also the best way to describe the wealth of new ideas circulating in these essays.

in Overwhelmed by overflows?
Abstract only

This chapter discusses the shifts in attitudes to the working-class advice-seeker, justice and citizenship from the 1890s to the 1990s resulting from the transition from a discretionary to a rules-based welfare system. It looks at developments in the attitudes of the legal profession, including the growth of political law groups, as part of this. It assesses the impact of the Legal Aid and Advice Act 1949 as the watershed moment in bringing legal aid into the welfare state. The chapter draws together the theme of (not) paying lawyers to do public work throughout the twentieth century and the impact of cultural shifts on practical policy developments.

in Lawyers for the poor
Demand-side abundance and its discontents in Hungary during the long 1960s

It was shortages, not excess consumption, that was a prime subject for Eastern Europe’s social scientists of the Cold War era. Yet a move toward market socialism, the re-emergence of the emancipated consumer, and a sustained supply-side abundance remained at the core of the reformist Communist economy, all the way to the demise of the state-socialist project. The changes during the 1960s included the birth of the consumer citizen and some half-hearted steps toward an economic domain in which planning and market would be integrated. The long decade following 1956 in Hungary brought with it consumerism, defined as values and desires, and patterns of behavior focused on satisfying an acquisitive desire. Such consumerism did not require the abundance of goods, typical for the contemporary Western affluent societies.

in Overwhelmed by overflows?

From the late 1990s onwards, most politicians decided that one way of dealing with that critique was to launch web-based guides designed to support citizens by providing information before they had to make a choice. Private actors also saw business opportunities and started private web-based guides.

Guides covering key public services are a relatively new phenomenon; they differ from those in the private sector, however, because they regulate the relationship between the state and the citizen. In the study reported here, focus is on guides to public services, and how they are supposed to help people to deal with the overflow of choice opportunities.

in Overwhelmed by overflows?
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This chapter establishes the main themes of the book around the development of free legal advice and its relationship with citizenship, civil society organisations, the media and welfare provision. It offers a literature review of socio-legal and legal historical research on access to justice and examines the social and cultural historical research on relationships, consumption, voluntary action and welfare. The chapter outlines the methodological approach used in the book and explains the time frame used.

in Lawyers for the poor
Open Access (free)

This volume summarizes seven years of research, drawing and adding to the insights presented in the two earlier books from the project. The first volume, Managing overflow in affluent societies (2012) began by exploring earlier research in the field and then developed a conceptual framework that was put to work in a number of case studies. The second volume, Coping with excess: How organizations, communities and individuals manage overflows (2013), brought another theme to the foreground: the social and moral dimensions of evaluating overflow in terms of positive or negative, as a problem or as a potentiality. We return to the findings of these earlier publications as we reflect upon the cumulative work over the years.

in Overwhelmed by overflows?