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Non-elite cosmopolitanism in the Brexit era

Chapter 1 of Stories from a migrant city explains how the Brexit era has been produced through a combination of the legacies of colonialism, de-industrialisation and a decade of austerity, declining real wages and worsening employment conditions. It briefly describes the research on which the book is based and locates the book’s claims within wider scholarly literature on conviviality, non-elite cosmopolitanisms and racisms. The chapter also provides some background on the author and summarises the remaining chapters of the book.

in Stories from a migrant city
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A social revolution begins

Recounting the historic referendum results announced on Saturday 23 May 2015, this chapter introduces how Ireland shot onto the global stage as the first country to extend civil marriage to same-sex couples through a popular vote. Televisions across the world beamed images of people taking to the streets of the capital city and across the twenty-six counties in celebration, in tears and in solidarity.

in The history of marriage equality in Ireland
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The chapter starts by introducing the book’s two key themes: that philanthropy has been criticised as much as it has been praised, and that the meaning attached to the word has been in constant flux. It was only in the later twentieth century that a monetised definition took precedence over others. After outlining the methodology with its focus on usage of the words ‘philanthropy’ and ‘philanthropist’, the chapter outlines the ways they have changed over time, linking these changes to wider forces, chiefly the Enlightenment, Romanticism, evangelicalism and capitalism, and arguing that philanthropy can be understood only through its relationship with poverty and the Poor Laws, slavery and anti-slavery, political radicalism, mutualism, national identity, voluntary societies and volunteering, citizenship and the welfare state. Short chapter descriptions form a conclusion.

in The reputation of philanthropy since 1750

Discussing the background of the gay rights movement in Ireland, this chapter opens on 24 July 1975, when David Norris, Chairman of the first national gay rights organisation, appeared on national television to discuss why gay people should have equality. This chapter describes how Ireland was then the last remaining member of the European Economic Community to retain criminal penalties against male homosexual activity.

in The history of marriage equality in Ireland

John Howard, the prison reformer, was the first person to be consistently described as a ‘philanthropist’. He visited prisons throughout Britain and Europe, counting the steps down to ‘dungeons’, lambasting the sins of gaolers. In doing so he put his own life constantly at risk as gaol fever was endemic. The chapter centres on a proposal in 1786 to collect funds for a statue to Howard, even though the proposers knew that Howard would disapprove. From this point on philanthropy became a public, not simply a private, virtue. The aristocracy, William Pitt the prime minister, William Wilberforce and many other famous names contributed to the appeal for funds. Those raising money congratulated themselves on their own philanthropy: it was an expression of their own good feelings and above that of the nation. Howard put a stop to the proposal, but on his death in 1790 it was revived and in 1796 his statue, the first in the body of St Paul’s Cathedral, was unveiled. Howard was described as ‘the philanthropist’, his ‘god-like’ life celebrated. For a century future philanthropists were measured against Howard and found wanting. He himself counted the miles he travelled, not the considerable amount of money he gave.

in The reputation of philanthropy since 1750
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Extending the reach of Baylean (and Forstian) toleration

Chandran Kukathas, in his response to the volume’s lead essay, focuses on Forst’s use of Bayle. He argues that Forst underestimates the power of Bayle’s challenge and the radical nature of its implications for our understanding of political order. Kukathas begins with an account of Bayle’s theory of toleration, drawing attention to its distinctiveness and reviewing the main objections that have been raised against it. He then turns to Forst’s account, showing how Forst has sought to incorporate Bayle’s thought into a deeper understanding of toleration. In the next section, he considers Forst’s theory of toleration more critically, arguing that he has not embraced Bayle to the extent necessary for the incorporation to be of any great consequence. The root of the problem lies with the subordination of toleration to justice; here Kukathas offers reasons for thinking that toleration is not a virtue of justice but supplies the foundations for justice. He then suggests that this requires thinking about justice in a very different way, one which gives it a much more modest place in our thinking about political order generally. Kukathas concludes with some wider reflections on where this leaves Rainer Forst’s conception of justice as the right to justification.

in Toleration, power and the right to justification
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Collective action in rural settlements

Access to resources and conflicts over resources provide many of the contexts for collective action by local groups. This chapter investigates the evidence for collaboration in basic agricultural tasks and other economic activities, as well as that for more political forms of cooperation, for instance in jointly building churches, running local courts, attesting land transactions; and it looks at the evidence for the role of conflict in defining discrete groups. Our focus examines how collective action brought together people of widely varying wealth, social standing and even different legal status. The chapter also considers the labels people used of themselves and those that others used of them, as well as attitudes to outsiders, such as non-residents, people culturally marked as foreign, and those excluded from the social group for lack of conformity or otherwise, as well as the conscious identification of some within the group, such as Jews, as 'other'.

in Neighbours and strangers
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A new direction

An overview of the formation of one of the main campaign groups seeking marriage for same-sex couples: Marriage Equality. The strategy of this group was to improve LGBT visibility and justify why same-sex couples could only achieve equality through access to civil marriage. Its second strategy was political engagement. This was an intrinsic aspect to ensure that those in positions of political power would implement the changes required to introduce marriage equality.

in The history of marriage equality in Ireland

Shortly after civil partnerships came into effect the coalition government collapsed. This chapter outlines how the general election of 2011 helped progress the campaign for marriage equality. This was a time ripe for political reform. Each of the main political parties recognised a need for constitutional change which was reflected in their election manifestos.

in The history of marriage equality in Ireland

In this period philanthropy stood highest in esteem. The Times moderated its stance. Newspapers praised Britain as a philanthropic nation. People wrote of their government as philanthropic in its foreign policy. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert devoted time and resources to much-praised philanthropy. But there were worries. The Social Science Association, with which philanthropy was at first closely aligned, distanced itself from it and became the voice for social reform. The Charity Organisation Society promoted scientific charity; its secretary, C. S. Loch, did not disguise his mistrust of philanthropy. Criticism was still unrelenting: ‘practical philanthropy’ was admired, but too much of it, according to the critics, was ‘spurious’ or ‘pseudo’. In 5 per cent philanthropy there was an attempt to help resolve housing problems but it came to be seen as a failure. Philanthropy was associated with the multiplicity of voluntary organisations to help the needy but they had spawned a body of ‘professional philanthropists’, who ran these organisations and were subjected to ridicule and dislike. Effeminacy became even more linked to philanthropy. In the late 1860s and early 1870s, three books by the era’s most eminent novelists had philanthropy directly in their sights: Middlemarch, The Moonstone and The Mystery of Edwin Drood.

in The reputation of philanthropy since 1750