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Diana Holmes and Robert Ingram

This chapter provides the reader with an overview of François Truffaut's films from a number of perspectives. An initial discussion of critical evaluations of his work is followed by an examination of some of the ways in which the films can be grouped and categorised. This leads into a chronological review of the body of work which foregrounds the main themes and discusses Truffaut's working practices as a director, drawing on his own writing about his film-making. From a relatively early point in his career, Truffaut had found his way to America: to see Helen Scott and Hitchcock in order to work on what he often referred to as the Hitchbook; to attend the New York Film Festival; and for English lessons in Los Angeles. As his reputation grew and particularly after he won the Oscar, he received invitations, from those 'nice Americans', to make a film in the USA.

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Fergus Daly and Garin Dowd

There has been a general flattening by critics of heterogeneous forms, problems, concerns and types of filmmaking of the 1980s. For this reason many diverse and disparate strands of filmmaking need disentangling. This chapter undertakes such a task by performing a minute dissection of the heterogeneous elements shaped by Leos Carax into works of great complexity and élan in order to isolate the true singularity and originality of his 1980s films, Boy Meets Girl and Mauvais Sang. In terms of Carax's allegiance to the nouvelle vague, there is little doubt that he drew great stylistic inspiration from Jean-Luc Godard. If the Carax-Godard link is examined in detail, it is possible to isolate the following overt influences of Godard on Carax's first films, for the purposes of illustration placing particular emphasis on how Bande à part resonates in Boy Meets Girl.

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Phil Powrie

One of the key features of Jean-Jacques Beineix's relationship with the film image is the notion of seduction and the erotic. Beineix's screen career began in 1969 as a trainee for a long-running television comedy series, Les Saintes Chêries, directed by Jean Becker. This chapter explores the concept of the postmodernism, first in general terms, then in relation to film, before passing on to the specifically French focus on advertising. Beineix and Luc Besson's films also managed to reflect the contemporary mood of cynicism and alienation prevalent in the youth class, which felt disenfranchised, as films like La Haine in the 1990s have continued to underline. Several reviewers had used the word baroque in relation to Diva in 1981. It was not until 1989 that the issue was explored in some depth by Bassan, writing for the Revue du cinéma.

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Edited by: E.A. Jones

A selection of sources that traces the progress of an anchoritic vocation from its first stirrings up to formal profession and enclosure. The sources span the full chronological range of the volume, from twelfth to sixteenth century, and include legal and administrative documents, liturgy and less formal works of guidance.

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Elizabeth Ezra

This chapter takes up Georges Méliès's treatment of gender roles, focusing specifically on the fairies and other airborne women who people his films, which reflected attitudes towards women that were prevalent in French culture at the turn of the century. In France at the turn of the twentieth century, flying women were all the rage: they were, quite literally, dans le vent. The flight of fancy is an illusion: the flying woman tells decorative lies with her body. The chapter explores the nature of this illusion as it is evoked in Méliès's films, while examining the contradictions encompassed by the flying woman as she united opposites in an age of transition. The most visible function of flying women in Méliès's films, of course, was that of sex appeal: they provided an excuse to show young women clad in tights and diaphanous garments.

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Phil Powrie

After La lune dans le caniveau, Jean-Jacques Beineix worked on a script for a vampire film, based on the novel La Vierge de glace by Marc Behm. This project, for which Beineix bought the rights, and has continued to pay them annually, was shelved because American producers felt that the budget of $20 million was too high. Beineix worked on the adaptation, this time alone, over a period of two months in Saint Cyprien, near Gruissan, on the Languedoc coast. Gruissan is the site of the 1930s beach houses on stilts which are one of the more startling images of the film. Disenchanted with his experience of the producers of his two previous films, he had created his own company, Cargo Films, in November 1984, and tried to associate with some Swiss producers for 37°22 le matin.

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Who are the ‘dissidents’?

Motivations and aspirations: the drawing of the fault lines

Marisa McGlinchey

This chapter provides an in-depth analysis of who the ‘dissidents’ are and what motivates them. The chapter details personal testimonies of a wide spectrum of radical republican activists, including members of organisations, independents and individuals who were active in the Republican Movement prior to the formation of the Provisionals in 1969. This chapter details interviewees’ locations, occupations and family backgrounds, including the significance of family tradition on political activism. The fault lines of modern ‘dissident’ republicanism can be traced to the 1970s; therefore this chapter reveals testimonies of individuals who were active in the Provisional Movement during that period and provides an insight into the formation of RSF through unprecedented interviews with individuals who followed Ruairí Ó’Brádaigh out of the 1986 Ard Fheis to reassemble as RSF. Further, the chapter examines the ‘holy grail’ of republicanism – the Hunger Strikes – and examines Richard O’Rawe’s arguments which have permeated throughout the radical republican narrative. While ideological breaking points have been significant, this chapter details the significance of resentment and perceptions of betrayal towards the Sinn Féin leadership. Through personal testimonies, this chapter provides an unprecedented insight into the motivations of individuals who stayed with the Provisionals through major ideological shifts to then depart more recently.

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Marisa McGlinchey

This chapter provides an analysis of the divided nature of radical republicanism and details the irreconcilable ideological and tactical differences between groups which prevent formal unity. Through personal testimonies from founding members, this chapter explores what motivated individuals to form new groups, including the 32CSM, RSM, RNU, éirigí, 1916 Societies and, most recently, Saoradh. It further notes the emergence of a large body of ‘independents’ within ‘dissident’ republicanism. The chapter provides an analysis of the ‘Limerick group’ which broke from RSF in 2009; events surrounding which highlight issues of central importance including legitimacy, identity, calls for a broad front and groups ‘parroting’ other groups. Republicans collectively assert the right to sovereignty; however, fundamental division exists regarding how sovereignty should be exercised. Arguably, engagement with the state is unavoidable; however, the central point of contention within republicanism regards at what point engagement is viewed as ‘sell-out’. Tactical diversity exists within groups, as demonstrated at the 2014 RSF Ard Fheis. Through unprecedented interviews with prisoners in Maghaberry, this chapter highlights the identity struggle which has played out in the prison and which is reflective of wider tensions between groups. Finally, this chapter provides unique insight into relations between the Provisional and ‘dissident’ worlds.

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Unfinished business

The politics of ‘dissident’ Irish republicanism

Marisa McGlinchey

This book provides an analysis of the politics, ideology and strategy of ‘dissident’ Irish republicans. Based on the largest survey of ‘dissidents’ to date, it offers unprecedented insight into who the ‘dissidents’ are and what they hope to achieve. The ninety interviewees for this book comprise members of ‘dissident’ groups, independents, elected representatives, current prisoners in Maghaberry prison, former senior members of the Provisional Movement and individuals who were active in the Republican Movement prior to the formation of the Provisionals in 1969. This book provides insight into the Provisional–‘dissident’ divide regarding tactics-versus-principles, a debate which strikes to the heart of republicanism. Uniquely, through interviews with key players, this book presents the mainstream Sinn Féin narrative, thus providing an insight into the contested narratives of these two worlds which encompass former comrades. This book locates ‘dissident’ republicanism historically, within the long trajectory of republican struggle, and demonstrates the cyclical nature of key debates within the republican leadership. Personal testimonies of key players demonstrate a nuanced spectrum of opinion on the current armed campaign regarding utility and morality; and republican views are presented on whether or not there should be any republican prisoners at present. Through unique interviews with a spokespersons for the Continuity and REAL IRAs, this book delves into the psyche of those involved in the armed campaign. Key themes explored throughout the book include the drawling of the fault lines, the varied strands of ‘dissidence’, ceasefires and decommissioning, the Good Friday Agreement, policing, ‘IRA policing’, legitimacy and mandates.

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Marisa McGlinchey