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Gary James

This chapter begins the analysis of football in Manchester by setting the scene. It discusses the development of the city and the impact of sport in the city’s formative years, including the early versions of football played, and banned, within the region. By the nineteenth century the demand for leisure activities had increased alongside the city’s growth. Despite being officially banned, bear-baiting and cock-fighting continued, while horse-racing, pugilism, pedestrianism and other sports suitable for gambling increased, generating a thriving sporting culture across the city and laying the foundations for the subsequent enthusiasm for organised team games, such as cricket and football. To understand the role football plays in Mancunian life it is first important to appreciate how the city and its surrounding area evolved, and how sport took a hold of the region.

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The emergence of footballing cultures

Manchester, 1840–1919

Gary James

This book provides a distinctive and original contribution to the historiography of sport, adding considerably to our understanding of the origins of soccer within the Manchester region. It is the first academic study of the development of association football in Manchester and is directly linked to the debates within sports history on football’s origins. Its regional focus informs the wider debate, contextualising the growth of the sport in the city and identifying communities that propagated and developed football. The period 1840–1919 saw Manchester’s association game develop from an inconsequential, occasionally outlawed activity, into a major business with a variety of popular football clubs and supporting industries. This study of Manchester football considers the sport’s emergence, development and establishment through to its position as the city’s leading team sport. What establishes a football culture and causes it to evolve is not simply the history of a few clubs, governing bodies, local leagues or promoting schools, but a conglomeration of all of these. The book is innovative in its approach to the origins of footballing in Manchester, where the sport has generally been assumed not to have existed until the creation of what became Manchester City and Manchester United.

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Gary James

The growth of football in Manchester saw clubs such as Manchester Football Club, the ‘absolute pioneers’ of rugby in the region, established in 1860, with several other clubs also being founded, mostly in the then wealthier residential areas of the conurbation, such as Broughton, Didsbury, Sale, Whalley Range and Old Trafford. The prominent members of these clubs appear to have been from the upper class or from respected middle-class occupations, and many were former public school boys. The major focus of this chapter is a detailed analysis of Hulme Athenaeum and its development as an association football club. This informs a discussion on the influence of class, public schools and communities on the propagation of the sport. When considering longue durée thinking, it is evident that Hulme Athenaeum’s influence was felt from 1863 through to the establishment of the Manchester County Football Association in the mid-1880s and on to the professional game. Manchester’s first trophy successes came at a time when John Nall, Hulme’s first football secretary in 1863, was still an active member of the conurbation’s footballing community.

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Gary James

This chapter summarises the processes and issues encountered during the development of Manchester’s football culture. It outlines the significance of regional studies in the debates surrounding the origins of football and demonstrates how the book documents the development of the game, and the society and communities that supported and propagated the sport. By 1919 Manchester had become regarded as a footballing city with two prominent, popular and successful Football League clubs bearing its name, and other professional teams established within its conurbation. It had its own football association and a multitude of leagues and competitions at every level. Major finals had been held in the conurbation, while international and representative games had been staged there. Football was evident across Manchester and was an important component of regional identity and culture. The sport had crossed class divides. The chapter argues that long-range thinking allows us to see patterns and cycles within Manchester’s footballing development, ensuring that events and individual moments are considered for their connections and not for how brightly they shine at one particular moment in time. This book concludes that in a city so well known for football, it is still vital to focus on both the detail and the patterns in order to ensure that we recognise the truth of a region’s history.

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Written on the body

A queer and cartographic exploration of the Palestinian diaspora in Randa Jarrar’s A Map of Home (2008) and Him, Me, Muhammad Ali (2016)

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Alberto Fernández Carbajal

This last chapter explores the construction of the queer female diasporic body in Randa Jarrar’s debut novel, A Map of Home, and in her short-story collection Him, Me, Muhammad Ali. It is argued that Jarrar constructs it as the simultaneous repository of Palestinian dispossession and of Arab and Islamicate homosexual repression. It analyses how Jarrar’s narrators express shame about their same-sex desire without knowing where it comes from, and it is argued it stems from internalised heteropatriarchal Muslim and Arab cultural values. In the face of Islamicate homophobia, Jarrar offers irreverent queer exegesis which contravenes the heterosexist bias of traditionalist religious interpretation. It is also argued that national maps are forfeited in favour of the mapping of queer subjectivities. The mapping of bodies against the prescription of nation-states helps us consider queer subjectivities in all their diasporic complexity, heeding, specifically, what it means to be queer, Arab, and of Palestinian and Muslim heritage, simultaneously. It is suggested Jarrar’s texts vindicate the queer female Muslim body as needing to claim ownership of itself, over and above inherited narratives of national dispossession and heteropatriarchal violence.

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Derek Robbins

This chapter offers a brief outline of Schutz’s career in the first half of his life and then considers in detail the texts, published and unpublished at the time, which he produced in this period. It concludes with a summary of the correlations between these social and intellectual trajectories, both in relation to the Viennese context.

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Derek Robbins

This chapter considers the social and intellectual adjustments made by Schutz and Gurwitsch as a consequence of their migrations to the United States. It does so by examining elements of their correspondence in the 1940s and by considering the development of their original views in the new cultural context. It highlights Schutz’s exchange with Parsons and Gurwitsch’s critique of the political consequences of the German philosophical tradition. It suggests that their change of context had the effect of consolidating their intellectual detachment from socio-political issues.

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Alberto Fernández Carbajal

This chapter proposes that queer diasporas are inverted in Ferzan Özpetek’s debut feature film, Hamam (1997), exploring the experiences of an Italian man in modern Istanbul. This chapter undertakes a reading of Hamam which interrogates the film’s use of the Orientalist homoerotic spatial trope of the Turkish bath. Whilst the film has been deemed as perpetuating European imaginaries about the sensually and sexually alluring Orient and of the civilising ‘white saviour’, the analysis demonstrates that the homosocial spaces of the eponymous hamam remain micropolitically transgressive, productively re-inscribing same-sex desire onto contemporary Turkish culture. Character connect across ethnic and national divides, at a remove from the Italian protagonist’s inherited Catholicism, and from the clandestine workings of Kemalist and Islamist homophobia illustrated in the film’s denouement. The chapter suggests that Hamam does not victimise the figure of the abandoned wife whose husband has turned towards men, but that she continues the architectural restoration work her dead husband started in a manner that does not equate the film’s exploration of male queerness with a silencing or ignoring of women’s perspectives.

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Alberto Fernández Carbajal

This book explores representations of queer migrant Muslims in international literature and film from the 1980s to the present. It brings together a variety of contemporary writers and filmmakers of Muslim heritage engaged in vindicating same-sex desire from several Western locations. The book approaches queer Muslims as figures forced to negotiate their identities according to the expectations of the West and of their migrant Muslim communities. It coins the concept of queer micropolitical disorientation via the work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, Sara Ahmed and Gayatri Gopinath. The author argues that depictions of queer Muslims in the West disorganise the social categories that make up contemporary Western societies. The study covers three main themes: queer desire across racial and national borders; Islamic femininities and masculinities; and the queer Muslim self in time and place. These thematic clusters examine the nuances of artistic depictions of queer Muslims’ mundane challenges to Western Islamophobia and Islamicate heteronormativity. Written in a scholarly but accessible style, this is a timely contribution to the controversial topic of Islam and homosexuality, forging understanding about the dissident position of Muslims who contravene heteronormative values and their equivocal political position in the West.

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Derek Robbins

The chapter asks whether Bourdieu prolonged the dilemma of the activist intellectual which Merleau-Ponty had articulated and which derived from the Western tradition indicatively absorbed and reproduced by Schutz and Gurwitsch. It suggests three possible responses to Bourdieu’s work. It prefers a particular response but concludes that the merit of the book is that it provides information to enable readers themselves to assess the value of the Bourdieu paradigm in their socio-cultural contexts.