Felix Kanitz and Balkan archaeology
Vladimir V. Mihajlović

This chapter examines one network, webbed around Austrian autodidact Felix Kanitz (1829–1904) at the beginning of the institutional phase of Serbian archaeology. Throughout the greatest part of its history, archaeology in Serbia was practised within the wider field of, theoretically conservative, Yugoslav archaeology. Hence, Kanitz's iconic status in Serbian archaeology is shown through the fact that even today, more than 150 years after he published his first book on Roman heritage in Serbia, his works are the starting point of almost every archaeological project in the country. His advisers on Serbian topics and those who accompanied him in Serbia were almost all tightly connected to an imperialistic practice. Put differently, Kanitz created a kind of gentlemen's club, consisting of people who shared the same language, but also the same cultural values – Central European cultural values in particular. Both intermediary and intermediated, Kanitz, who was not trained as an archaeologist but was deeply tucked into the fold of Habsburg ‘frontier colonialism’, created an elaborate Europe-wide network that produced and, following that, transmitted knowledge on the Roman archaeology of Serbia.

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
The case of Oscar Montelius and Italy
Anna Gustavsson

This chapter will discuss networks, exchange of ideas and knowledge production related to the emergence of a professional, European archaeology during the period c. 1870–1900. It draws from archival research on correspondence between primarily Oscar Montelius and Italian scholars. What structures, channels of communication and dissemination of knowledge can be traced in the source material? The chapter examines these questions and presents examples of how networks were formed, how communication worked and on what premises scientific questions and artefacts were discussed. What theoretical and methodological perspectives might be useful to examine these issues?

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Re-thinking Ludwik Fleck’s concept of the thought-collective according to the case of Serbian archaeology
Monika Milosavljević

While the history of archaeology is commonly considered as progressive, a linear development of scientific knowledge which invariably passes through four paradigmatic stages, the history of Serbian archaeology has evolved under numerous stimuli and found itself under the influence of local social conservatism in Yugoslavia throughout most of the twentieth century. There is a general consensus that archaeological concepts, practices, theories and methods originating from a west European context are adopted only in a delayed fashion into peripheral environments (such as Serbia). This would falsely imply that the subsequent development of archaeology in other regions has the same objectives in mind, which need not be the case for all movements of thought. The intersection of the theory of the thought-collective and the history of ideas in archaeology prompts specific areas for research, including questions that indicate where the epistemological limitations of archaeology in different historical contexts could be on the basis of informal aspects of communication among archaeologists. The example of Serbian archaeology is analysed using Fleck’s concepts to better view their strengths and weaknesses.

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Open Access (free)
Clusters of knowledge
Julia Roberts and Kathleen Sheppard
in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Interactional strategies in late-nineteenth-century Classical archaeology: the case of Adolf Furtwängler
Ulf R. Hansson

This chapter examines collegiality and the instrumentality of informal networks in the production of knowledge around 1900 as exemplified by the German classical archaeologist Adolf Furtwängler (1853–1907). Based on a relatively well documented case from the formative period in the modern history of Classical archaeology, this chapter explores how and to what extent various dynamic processes within the discipline can be affected when a key actor in the system for some reason withdraws or is excluded from the social aspects of the profession. Although Furtwängler was one of the most prolific and influential Classical archaeologists of his generation, his wide-ranging contribution is little discussed in the discipline’s modern histories, for various reasons. Based on substantial unpublished archive material that permits a detailed reconstruction of his professional networks and work methods, this chapter discusses Furtwängler’s problematic interaction with the scholarly community and his various strategies for creating and maintaining professional relations with institutions and individuals considered indispensable for his own work.

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
The key role of the Italian antiquarian market in the inception of American Classical art collections during the late-nineteenth century
Francesca de Tomasi

The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and the Chicago Art Institute managed their acquisitions of international arts and antiquities through the mediation of salaried agents in Rome who made purchases on their behalf. This network made transactions easier and allowed faster connections and the possibility of profitable deals. No Roman scholar, archaeologist or even state official was not called at least once to give an opinion on a purchase, write a report for the granting of an export permit or provide an estimate of the market value of an artwork. They often crossed the boundaries between archaeology and antiquarianism, conservation and collecting, legal and illicit. Among these personalities Wolfgang Helbig and Rodolfo Lanciani were both prominent and dynamic. This chapter answers questions such as: Why did Helbig and Lanciani choose to be intermediaries for overseas museums on the Roman antiquarian market? Was money the only reason? What were the differences between figures like Helbig and Lanciani and those like John Marshall and Edward Perry Warren, who also worked as purchasing agents and intermediaries?

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Was he more than just ‘Dr Took’?
Jonathan R. Trigg

This chapter presents a reflection and assessment of the life, career and work of the little-studied seventeenth-century physician and ‘Renaissance man’ Robert Toope. He is currently, perhaps, chiefly known for his correspondence on wide-ranging, eclectic, subjects with the likes of John Aubrey and Robert Boyle, together with later less-than-complimentary references by William Stukeley. The evidence suggests that the latter, albeit famous, observations were bafflingly unconsidered. Toope was more than merely a product of his time. He was clearly someone who was subject to periods of intense activity that had great influence on the work of his contemporaries and without which we would have far less understanding of the archaeological record of southern Britain. Yet, unlike many fellow antiquarians, for example, he did not publish his own observations, favouring perhaps the communication of such to other contemporary scholars. The chapter highlights the paradigmatic importance of going back to the original sources. It also serves to establish such facts as are known about Toope, correct some misinterpretations and introduce some new information in what is more than merely a nuanced biographical essay.

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Open Access (free)
Antonín Salač and the French School at Athens
Thea De Armond

Prague, though near the centre of Europe, is neither its geopolitical centre, nor the centre of Classics. How, then, might a scholar from Prague gain access to the Classical past or contribute to wider – particularly, European – conversations about Graeco-Roman antiquity? This chapter, drawing on archival research on the Czech classicist Antonín Salač (1885–1960), will consider some of the routes traced by knowledge about the Classical past in the Czechoslovakia of the first half of the twentieth century. Antonín Salač was a prominent epigrapher and archaeologist, who lived and worked in Prague for most of his life. But Prague – in fact, most of Czechoslovakia – lacked Classical material; certainly, it lacked in situ archaeological remains. Thus, Salač’s international bona fides were – and had to be – considerable. In his relationship with France, we will see how a scholar from a non-imperial nation might insinuate himself into what was, for the most part, a conversation between empires – through a savvy leveraging of geopolitics. The tragedy, of course, is that Salač’s relationships were never purely ‘political’. So, the loss of contact with his French colleagues after the 1948 coup d’état was also ‘personal’.

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
James Breasted’s early scientific network
Kathleen Sheppard

This chapter examines the importance of place in building and maintaining scientific networks for the field scientist by using James Henry Breasted and his early network as a case study. There are a number of important factors that go into relationship dynamics among scientific practitioners, such as age, professional experience, and gender; however, each of these factors also affected where and how Breasted met these scholars. Examining Breasted’s relationships with Flinders Petrie and Gaston Maspero will reveal the nuances behind the varying sites of knowledge creation and the effect that the urban institution or the rural field site can have on the development of scientific networks, their means of communication, and the scholarship that results from these relationships.

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
The permeable clusters of Hanna Rydh
Elisabeth Arwill-Nordbladh

This chapter discusses the Swedish reception of two articles that Rydh wrote after contact with French international research. We meet Hanna Rydh in the 1920s when she was establishing her position as an archaeologist. She had to navigate a male-oriented discipline, even though the archaeological scene was not explicitly homogeneous. Other Nordic countries, and to some extent Mediterranean and other European countries, were linked by scholarly discussions. However, few thematic meetings took place between Scandinavians and non-Scandinavians and few Scandinavians developed theoretical approaches, except for theories about culture and people. In these articles Rydh used Durkheimian ideas, for example that manifestations of group or community life may be connected to a more general social order, and that social structure and organisation can be observed and maintained on different levels in social life. At that time, such thinking was unusual within Swedish archaeology, and Rydh probably got her inspiration at St-Germain-en-Laye. The harsh reception of the articles is discussed from perspectives of intersecting axes of power such as profession, gender and economy, relating these to various social clusters of which Rydh was a part.

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology