Jaro Stacul investigates the consequences of an Italian party’s discourse about the countryside, and how it has dovetailed with local concerns. He discusses the rise of the Lega Nord (Northern League) in the 1990s, a time of national disenchantment with established parties, then widely seen as deeply corrupt. Leaders of the populist Lega called for the recreation of a lost ‘authenticity’ and a traditional sense of community, propagating an idea of a northern Italian culture, denigrating southerners as lazy and parasitic, and criticizing the state as the distant imposer of an alienating ‘civilization’. To these rhetoricians, it was the northern countryside which was the repository of laudatory values, in particular an ethic of hard work. To the Trentino villagers, with whom he did fieldwork and whose area had not been incorporated into Italy until the end of the First World War, the Lega was attractive because they regarded the state as remote, if not indeed foreign, and as responsible for creating a National Park in their area. The state saw the park as a wild, public space; locals saw it as a restrictive practice which curtailed the exercise of their traditional practices, such as hunting, which they had carried out on land they regarded as cultivated, in effect private property.
Changing meanings of the countryside in northern Italy
Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA) initiated a project in 2008 on Women Political Empowerment and Leadership (WPEL) to address the gaps in the education and training of women leaders for political roles in institutions of local self-governance, at both urban and rural levels. The Prem Chadha Memorial Youth Leadership Programme was initiated by PRIA in memory of the late Mr Prem Chadha, a founder of PRIA. The programme Strengthening Scheduled Caste Leadership in Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) aims to strengthen SC leadership by providing them opportunities for systematic learning; facilitating such learning; and supporting capacity enhancement on an ongoing basis. While women elected representatives (WERs) share a political mandate of leadership as people's representatives, non-WERs from informal associations, self-help groups (SHGs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) assume de facto leadership roles.
The Danish Society for the Conservation of Nature (DN) of Frederikssund is a local committee of a national non-governmental organization (NGO) working towards protecting nature and the environment. DN Frederikssund addresses local issues regarding the protection of nature and the environment to achieve local sustainable development. It initiates local campaigns, participates in political hearings and comments on the municipality's environmental strategies and plans. In the mid-1990s, DN Frederikssund became aware of science shops through correspondence from the science shops at Roskilde University Centre (RUC). DN Frederikssund saw this as an opportunity to engage in research about the pollution levels in village ponds in Frederikssund municipality. DN Frederikssund has defined more project requests for the science shops at RUC and the University of Copenhagen (KU). The NGO was able to use the results to pressure the municipality of Frederikssund on the issue of the lakes' health.
This is a companion to Pastoral poetry of the English Renaissance: An anthology (2016), the largest ever collection of its kind. The monograph-length Introduction traces the course of pastoral from antiquity to the present day. The historical account is woven into a thematic map of the richly varied pastoral mode, and it is linked to the social context, not only by local allegory and allusion but by its deeper origins and affinities. English Renaissance pastoral is set within the context of this total perspective.
Besides the formal eclogue, the study covers many genres: lyric, epode, georgic, country-house poem, ballad, romantic epic, drama and prose romance. Major practitioners like Theocritus, Virgil, Sidney, Spenser, Drayton and Milton are discussed individually.
The Introduction also charts the many means by which pastoral texts circulated during the Renaissance, with implications for the history and reception of all Early Modern poetry. The poems in the Anthology have been edited from the original manuscripts and early printed texts, and the Textual Notes comprehensively document the sources and variant readings. There are also notes on the poets and analytical indices of themes, genres, and various categories of proper names. Seldom, if ever, has a cross-section of English Renaissance poetry been textually annotated in such detail.
Crystal Tremblay and Sarah Amyot
People who live off materials recovered from the waste stream exist in every corner of the world. However, these recyclers are among the most exploited and socially and economically excluded people. Recyclers face enormous stigmatization, discrimination and marginalization. This project focused on participatory waste management as an opportunity to generate income and improve the quality of life of informal recyclers (called catadores in Brazil), while promoting environmental sustainability and inclusive public policies on integrated waste management. The project has also made a number of contributions to theorizing the social and solidarity economies, areas of research that remain relatively undertheorized, while also contributing to the critical discourse on collective commercialization and microcredit. Further, the research has helped to expand the body of theory about community-based research and empowerment concepts.
Felix M. Bivens
The Outreach and Community Service programme at the University of the South in Sewanee, Tennessee, was created in 1989. It was part of a wave of many such programmes started by US universities and colleges in the late 1980s and early 1990s, bolstered by Boyer's Scholarship Reconsidered report for the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The University of the South, more commonly referred to as Sewanee, is a small, private liberal-arts college owned by the twenty-six southern dioceses of the Episcopal Church. Since 2003, the outreach programme has been pivotal in enabling a series of new courses which include action learning and community-based research (CBR). The series of new courses includes summer-in-South-Asia programme, documentary photography, human health in the environment, politics of poverty, medical ethics, introduction to anthropology, civil rights, music and social change, and community-engagement minor.
Emerging sociabilities in Alava, Basque Country
Josetxu Martínez Montoya
Incomers need not come from afar. In fact they might be local returnees. In his chapter, Josetxu Martínez, an anthropologist of his home region, studied the evolving patterns of residency and sociability in the Basque province of Alava. Between the 1960s and ‘80s, villagers left for the sake of jobs in the provincial city. But from the 1980s, in part stimulated by the local implementation of the rural interventionist programmes of the EU, these same villagers started to make seasonal returns to their natal villages. Financially secure thanks to their urban employment, they now saw the countryside not as the site of ill-paid drudgery but as a recreational space in which to relax and socialize among their kin and affines. Though ageing locals saw them as outsiders because they were no longer tied to the soil, these urban escapees continued to regard themselves as insiders. They did not see themselves as returning to a home they had earlier abandoned because, Martínez argues, they were not aware of having ever left it. They had moved to the city physically, not emotionally. Thus, he contends, we should speak of a new rural-urban continuum in the area, which is replacing the previously well-established separation between the two.
Gabriel Harvey has long been recognized as the inspiration for Malvolio in Twelfth Night. This chapter explains how Shakespeare turned his late friend Thom Nashe into Feste, and continued Nashe’s torment of Harvey from beyond the grave.
Grassroots exceptionalism in humanitarian memoir
Memoir has for some time played a significant role in the expansion and interpretation of the humanitarian industry. For both the relief and development industries memoir is admirably suited as an ambassador from the field to the larger public, oriented as it is to personal experience and testimony. This chapter explores how humanitarian memoir generates an aura of authenticity much-needed by an industry reliant on public donations and on the perception of its status as a player outside the systems of state sovereignty and global capital. Analysing two founder narratives, this chapter considers the ‘humanitarian naive’ at work: the role of the ‘fool’ proves both revelatory and empowering, asserting the value of sui generis intelligence to produce humanitarian knowledge and even participate in global governance.