University-community partner equitably contributes their expertise and shares responsibility and ownership to enhance understanding, integrate the knowledge gained, with action to improve the well-being of community members and foster sustainable development. Community-university partnerships can serve as an entry point where local community-based organizations, village communities and public (government) agencies work together in the area of community development and educational enrichment. The cases of Mountain Development Research Centre (MDRC) and Rural Extension Centre's (REC) rural library services show that partnership with community members and civil society organizations (CSOs) has a potential for valuing indigenous knowledge, and knowledge production around citizens' concerns. Rural reconstruction programmes in Sriniketan were primarily organized and coordinated by the REC. The objective of a rural circulating library was to retain acquired literacy skills after education.
A global perspective
Using the lens of global perspectives, this chapter explores the form, function and impact of community-university research partnerships. It examines participatory approaches to research and impacts that serve to foster, facilitate and strengthen the unique relationship and democratic knowledge exchange process between partners, participants and across the sectors they represent. The chapter demonstrates that the process of measuring impact is informed by how partners and participants directly and indirectly involved in community-university research partnerships. It presents examples of hybrid approaches to assessment and evaluation of community-university research partnerships. Community-university research partners at the University of Brighton's Community-University Partnership Programme (CUPP) apply a theory of change to identify a pathway of change, which includes indicators to measure success leading to particular outcomes. Local, regional, national and international community-university research partnership structures, networked together, offer greater opportunities to draw on global perspectives and act in global arenas.
This chapter explains that Christopher Marlowe was the inspiration for Jaques in Shakespeare’s As You Like It – and that Shakespeare wrote the play to commemorate the seventh anniversary of Marlowe’s death. We take a close look at how Shakespeare felt about his rival, mentor and friend.
The short history of Indian doctors in the Colonial Medical Service, British East Africa
Anna Greenwood and Harshad Topiwala
Histories of the Colonial Medical Service have considered the European Medical Officers forming their elites and also the subsidiary auxiliary staff who provided supporting healthcare provision. No research has, however, taken account of the Indian ‘middle-men’ who were also relied upon in many parts of the African Empire to provide healthcare to local communities. These men, despite being of lesser rank in the colonial hierarchy, were qualified in western medicine and undertook duties identical to their European superiors. The policy of recruiting Indians abruptly stopped however in 1923. This chapter discusses why this happened and argues that part of the reason for the definite, if surreptitious, policy to squeeze Indians out of government medical positions was that it did not fit in with the public image the British government wanted to portray from the 1920s onwards. As such, the authors show that the Colonial Medical Service was not always the white organisation that most histories have assumed.
Felix M. Bivens
The MA in Participation (MAP) had its first intake of students in 2004. MAP is the product of several years of planning and more years of previous work by the Participation, Power and Social Change (PPSC) team at Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex. The roots of PPSC connect to the highly influential work of Robert Chambers in the field of participatory development. The curriculum for the first term of MAP has two courses, Foundations of Participation, and Ideas in Development. Foundations of Participation is designed for and open only to MAP students. It is basically two courses in one, divided into two distinct streams: Action Research and Reflective Practice; and Power, Participation and Social Change. The Action Research/ Reflective Practice stream is less conventional in its structure and is key to what makes MAP an innovative programme, curricularly and pedagogically.
Shakespeare’s M.O.A.I. riddle in Twelfth Night has been his most intractable crux. This chapter provides the solution, and explains how a mis-translation concealed the truth from scholars for 400 years.
From starving children to satirical saviours
This chapter examines how the development of social media sites, such as Facebook and Twitter, has changed humanitarian NGOs’ media practices and subsequently altered the ways that supporters and publics are engaged. The chapter contributes an understanding of how people participate in these differing narratives on Facebook, and considers ‘everyday’ humanitarian actions so as to address the engagement that is often excluded in political discourses that focus on institutional politics. Facebook algorithms, along with the architects of Facebook, have now become the new ‘gatekeepers’ of humanitarian communication and NGOs have started to adapt their visual depictions of humanitarianism. In particular, this chapter proposes that the Facebook ‘like’, and users’ interaction online, changes the visual communication used by contributing to the governance of visibility.
Budd L. Hall
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book focuses on community-university research partnerships rather than the broader community-university engagement. It looks at the variety of structures that have been created in the various universities and civil society research organizations to facilitate and enhance research partnerships. The book provides evidence of the impact of community-university research partnerships on the curriculum in several higher education institutions (HEIs). It talks about the policy dance that community-university research partnerships are engaged in, by looking at the work of the European science shop movement. The book offers some thoughts on the future of community-university research partnerships within the context of a knowledge democracy movement. It is an evaluation framework for partnership research that has emerged from important work in Quebec.
Community–university research partnerships in global perspectives
Edited by: Budd L. Hall, Edward T. Jackson, Rajesh Tandon, Jean-Marc Fontan and Nirmala Lall
This book is based on a three-year international comparative study on poverty reduction and sustainability strategies . It provides evidence from twenty case studies around the world on the power and potential of community and higher education based scholars and activists working together in the co-creation of transformative knowledge. Opening with a theoretical overview of knowledge, democracy and action, the book is followed by analytical chapters providing lessons learned and capacity building, and on the theory and practice of community university research partnerships. It also includes lessons on models of evaluation, approaches to measuring the impact and an agenda for future research and policy recommendations. The book overviews the concept of engaged scholarship and then moves to focus on community-university research partnerships. It is based on a global empirical study of the role of community-university research partnerships within the context of poverty alleviation, the creation of sustainable societies and, broadly speaking, the Millennium Development Goals. The book frames the contribution of community-university research partnerships within a larger knowledge democracy framework, linking this practice to other spaces of knowledge democracy. These include the open access movement, new acceptance of the methods of community-based and participatory research and the call for cognitive justice or the need for epistemologies of the Global South. It takes a particular look at the variety of structures that have been created in the various universities and civil society research organizations to facilitate and enhance research partnerships.
Elizabethan writers frequently complained about what we call ‘close reading’, i.e., that their readers imputed seditious and/or scandalous intentions to the author. We take a close look at this practice, and how it should influence our reading of Shakespeare today.