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Michael Leonard

The fourth chapter addresses the tetralogy of films that mark Garrel’s first collaboration with scriptwriters: Les Baisers de secours (1989), J’entends plus la guitare (1991), La Naissance de l’amour (1993) and Le Cœur fantôme (1996). These works continue in the vein of the previous period, engaging with aspects of both Garrel’s present and past life, including marital difficulties and the conflict that emerges between the competing responsibilities towards one’s career and one’s family. In addition to providing close readings of the films, the chapter assesses the aesthetic implications of Garrel’s various collaborations with screenwriters, cinematographers and sound engineers during this period. Attention is equally paid to the relationship between Garrel and Eustache’s cinema, in particular to the echoes of La Maman et la putain (1974) that emerge in La Naissance de l’amour.

in Philippe Garrel
A mixed-method analysis of online community perception of epic biblical movies
Gregory P. Perreault and Thomas S. Mueller

This chapter undertakes a survey of active participants on religiously orientated Reddit threads. Prior research has shown that participants in online communities tend to be more enthusiastic and more invested in a given topic than nonparticipants (Duggan and Smith 2013). We assess the degree to which different religious groups feel motivated to watch biblical epics and how religiosity predicts watching biblical epic movies. Such research theoretically contributes to the understanding of the audience for biblical epics and more broadly contributes to our understanding of the religious motivations for media consumption. More practically, understanding the audience for biblical epics could help media producers understand the boundaries of their audience and the preferences of their audience.

in The Bible onscreen in the new millennium
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Philippe Garrel, an irregular auteur
Michael Leonard

The introduction provides a brief overview of Garrel’s life and career, and a review of some of the key literature published on him. It argues for the need to provide a more nuanced analysis of his relationship with the New Wave and for a careful consideration of the director’s relationship with the political and artistic climate fostered by May 68. It also proposes to consider Garrel’s work in light of its intersection with other avant-gardes. The Introduction provides a summary of various chapters in the study.

in Philippe Garrel
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Wickham Clayton

The introduction lays out the social, political and cultural landscape that led to and fostered the wave of biblical epics released in the new millennium. Providing a discussion of the theoretical approaches addressed, the introduction gives an overview of the chapters in this volume and defines the purpose of the book.

in The Bible onscreen in the new millennium
Mikel J. Koven

Myths are sacred stories; stories which embody a culture’s most significant ideas. As a ‘mythic vision,’ these ideas are demarcated in the cinematic text as moments of discernible difference. Moments which demand we stop and contemplate the sacred’s imposition in the continuity of the film. This chapter explores Darren Aronofsky’s Noah (2014) in terms of its mythic vision, a big-budget mainstream Hollywood biblical epic retelling of Genesis 6–9. But this chapter will also consider Ridley Scott’s Exodus: Gods and Kings (2014), a film which, rather than a ‘mythic’ vision, tries to recontextualise the story of the Exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt into a desacralised retelling, a film which denies the mythology inherent in the narrative. By discussing Scott’s Exodus, Aronofsky’s mythic vision in Noah is highlighted in relief.

in The Bible onscreen in the new millennium
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Autobiography and the imaginary self
Michael Leonard

The third chapter addresses Garrel’s narrative period (1979–1988), which begins with the confessional film L’Enfant secret. It explores the relationship between Garrel’s autobiographical approaches and Surrealism, especially the writings of André Breton, with whom the director expresses a strong affinity. A second aspect assesses Garrel’s role as historian. Two films from this period – Elle a passé tant d’heures sous les sunlights (1985) and Les Ministères de l’art (1989) – directly invoke the lives and works of other film-makers of Garrel’s generation. The chapter considers how Garrel integrates the personal histories of directors such as Jean Eustache, Chantal Akerman and Jacques Doillon with a broader history of a loose cinematic school that evolved in the aftermath of the New Wave.

in Philippe Garrel
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Genre and the birth and childhood
Matthew Page

This chapter examines various post-2004 adaptations of the Nativity and how they innovate within or deviate from the conventions of the biblical epic as it has traditionally been understood. Starting with the historical biblical epics from the silent era through to The Passion of the Christ (2004), it will outline the factors that have tended to demarcate biblical epics from other genres. It will then use these elements a lens to examine five recent biblical films about the birth and childhood of Jesus. These films all take different approaches to examining the stories of the birth and childhood of Jesus. Whilst many of the above elements of biblical epics are present, none of these films sit squarely within all of the confines of the genre. Moreover, the manner in which they deviate from those conventions and adopt alternative approaches points towards new possibilities for the genre.

in The Bible onscreen in the new millennium
Michael Leonard

The final chapter addresses the most recent period in Garrel’s cinema, marked by his engagement with the experiences of younger generations. Since La Naissance de l’amour (1993) Garrel has produced eight films at the time of writing and is currently working on his ninth, Le Sel des larmes. This chapter identifies several distinct threads that together form loose subcategories within this body of work. The first concerns the memory and legacy of May 68, explored in the works Le Vent de la nuit (1999) and Les Amants réguliers (2005). The second concerns films that confront issues relating to young couples and the trauma of separation, including Sauvage Innocence (2001), La Frontière de l’aube (2008) and Un Été brûlant (2010). A third thread relates to the films La Jalousie (2013), L’Ombre des femmes (2015) and L’Amant d’un jour (2017). Filmed in black and white and each with a duration of approximately seventy-five minutes, the works have been described by Stephane Delorme as a ‘trilogie freudienne’. Consideration is given to the comparatively lighter tone that emerges in the latter films which hint at a cautious optimism on the part of Garrel.

in Philippe Garrel
Clarice Greco, Mariana Marques de Lima and Tissiana Nogueira Pereira

This chapter seeks to contribute with theoretical and empirical reflections on the recent phenomenon of biblical telenovelas produced in Brazil. Since the consolidation of television in the 1960s telenovelas have become the main cultural product in Brazil and Latin America – especially those from Globo Corporation, which attract all the prime-time audience. But during recent years another channel, Record TV, has been receiving some attention for trying a different strategy in producing biblical telenovelas. Since 2010, Record TV has produced telenovelas and series focused on biblical narratives to attract a new audience. Within that context we aim to analyse these narratives in relation to: (1) the focus on a niche audience; (2) the fact that the network Record is owned by representatives from the ‘Universal Church of the Kingdom of God’; (3) the rise of a more conservative audience; and (4) the biblical narrative as a rising genre.

in The Bible onscreen in the new millennium
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Author: Michael Leonard

This book provides a comprehensive study of the cinema of Philippe Garrel, placing his work within the political context of France in the second half of the twentieth century (including the tumultuous events of May 68) and the broader contexts of auteur cinema and the avant-garde. Challenging the assumption that Garrel’s oeuvre exists in direct continuity with that of Jean-Luc Godard, François Truffaut et al., this study locates a more radical shift with Garrel’s predecessors by observing the eclecticism of the influences absorbed and exploited by the director. In doing so, it explores contexts beyond French cinema in order to interpret the director’s work, including avant-garde movements such as the Situationists, Surrealism, Arte Povera and the American Underground. Acknowledging Garrel’s role as an unofficial historian of the so-called ‘post-New Wave’, the study equally considers his relationship with other members of this loose film school, including Jean Eustache, Chantal Akerman and Jacques Doillon. The book is structured according to both a chronological and thematic reading of Garrel’s oeuvre. This method introduces different conceptual issues in each chapter while respecting the coherence of the various periodisations of the director’s career.