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This chapter contains the translated and annotated text of the 1125 Continuation of Frutolf ’s Chronicle.

in Chronicles of the Investiture Contest

This chapter contains the translated and annotated text of the Anonymous imperial Chronicle.

in Chronicles of the Investiture Contest
Frutolf of Michelsberg and his continuators

This book is the first English translation of one of the most significant chronicles of the middle ages. Written in Bamberg at the end of the eleventh century, Frutolf of Michelsberg's Chronicle offers a lively and vivid account of the great struggle between the German emperors and the papacy known today as the Investiture Contest. Frutolf's Chronicle has numerous continuations written in the first quarter of the twelfth century. Together with that, Frutolf's Chronicle offers an engaging and accessible snapshot of how medieval people reacted to a conflict that led to civil war in Germany and Italy, and fundamentally altered the relationship of church and state in Western society.

This chapter contains the translated and annotated text of Ekkehard of Aura's Chronicle, book 5.

in Chronicles of the Investiture Contest

This chapter contains the translated and annotated text of Ekkehard of Aura's Hierosolimita.

in Chronicles of the Investiture Contest
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This epilogue presents an annotated translation of Richard II's will.

in The reign of Richard II

This chapter presents translated and annotated sources on the theme of appeasement and tyranny during the reign of Richard II, 1389–97.

in The reign of Richard II

This chapter contains the translated and annotated text of Frutolf of Michelsberg's Chronicle.

in Chronicles of the Investiture Contest
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This introduction provides historical background and a discussion of the Frutolf's Chronicle. Written in Bamberg at the end of the eleventh century, Frutolf of Michelsberg's Chronicle offers a lively and vivid account of the great struggle between the German emperors and the papacy known today as the Investiture Contest. Closely related to Frutolf's Chronicle and the 1106 Continuation is the Anonymous imperial chronicle composed in 1113/1114. The existence of multiple continuations of the Chronicle obscured Frutolf's authorship of his own work. From the middle of the twelfth century until the end of the nineteenth not only the various continuations, but also the original Chronicle itself, were attributed to Abbot Ekkehard of Aura.

in Chronicles of the Investiture Contest
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The introduction describes the complex domestic and international situation which confronted the young king and offers guidance on the strengths and weaknesses of the reign's leading chronicles. During his fifty-year reign Edward III had restored the prestige and glamour of crown and court at home and abroad, defeated the Scots and humiliated the French. Students of Richard II's reign are blessed with numerous written sources. This reign saw the last great flowering of medieval chronicle-writing. Historians have abundant material for the early years of the reign, but from 1394 the position is problematic: much of Thomas Walsingham's account was written after Richard's deposition, and the chronicles by Henry Knighton and the Monk of Westminster finish about then.

in The reign of Richard II