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Finding land
Martin Crawford

The chapter discusses how the Society identified and acquired land in America, and its continuing efforts to persuade potters to support the emigration scheme. The mid-1840s saw significant attempts to promote the western states and territories as emigrant destinations. A key figure was John B. Newhall, who toured Britain in 1843 and commended the virtues of associative emigration. He especially praised the British Temperance Emigration Society, which in 1844 established a colony in Wisconsin, providing a model for the potters’ scheme. The chapter examines the Potters’ Emigration Society’s fund-raising efforts, and the continuing opposition from Chartists and a rival trade body, the National Association of United Trades for the Protection of Labour, which began recruiting in the Potteries. Confronted with an existential threat to the union and emigration scheme, Evans revived his warnings about mechanisation. Progress came in early 1846 with the departure to America of the three land officers and their families. The chapter describes in detail their arrival, their initial problems and their mission to the federal capital. It culminates in the selection of land in Wisconsin and the founding of the ‘Pottersville’ colony. These efforts were only partially successful: the officers’ failure to take with them sufficient funds proved an early stumbling block. As the pace of occupation in the area intensified, it became clear that the Society’s original design of establishing a compact ‘town’ on a single piece of land was untenable.

in Land and labour
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Settling the land
Martin Crawford

The chapter examines the next stage of settlement by the Society’s Estate Committee, which left for Wisconsin in the spring of 1847. Interwoven is the story of the struggle to bolster support for emigration in the face of strong competition for potters’ allegiances. The chapter describes the preparations for the Committee’s departure, including the farewell testimony of its members, and their reception in Wisconsin. Buoyed by news of their arrival, the Society sought to sustain the momentum through implementation of the members’ ballot. It also created subscription clubs, offering limited access to the scheme to non-potters. However, the potters’ union was struggling to survive, and by the end of 1847 was effectively defunct. The chapter analyses the impact of deteriorating economic conditions and competition from the rival Chartist Land Company. It reveals the horrific deaths in the Phoenix tragedy of the Clark family who had been sent to the United States with money and goods. It then discusses rising political and class tensions in early 1848 and the Society’s efforts to gain support from local elites. Prominent was the Staffordshire MP, Charles Adderley, who encouraged the Society to open its membership to other trades and regions, thereby transforming it. The remainder of the chapter tracks emigrant movement to Wisconsin during 1848 and Evans’s promotion of the reconstituted scheme beyond the Potteries. The initial focus was on industrial Cheshire and Lancashire, but the Society’s agents also took their case to London, where they were well received.

in Land and labour
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Expansion and scrutiny
Martin Crawford

1849 witnessed the high point of the Society’s recruitment following its expansion to other trades and regions. As it expanded, its activities came under greater scrutiny. Criticism came from various sources, with the mercurial preacher and editor, Joseph Barker, initially sympathetic, channelling much of it. The chapter analyses the widely differing views of the Society’s progress and conduct in early 1849, and the efforts of William Evans to defend it and himself against increasingly personalised attacks. The focus then switches to Wisconsin and the emigrants’ struggles to establish themselves in the unfamiliar environment. The arrival of the Society’s agent, Thomas Twigg, marked a turning point. Charged with overseeing the colony’s expansion, Twigg selected 50,000 acres along the Fox River, land he hoped would benefit from the major navigational improvements then under way. By the early summer, parties from Lancashire, Scotland, London, Birmingham and the Potteries began arriving in considerable numbers. The discussion tracks this movement and examines their early settlement on the ‘Indian Lands’. In England the departure of several hundred members led to intense debate concerning the Society’s organisation and structure and renewed fears about resources, with the fund-raising now centred on Twigg’s proposed grist mill. In October he left Wisconsin and returned to England, determined to explain in person his actions to develop the American colony and to impress on members at home the need for additional resources. Arriving in December, he and Evans embarked on a nationwide tour of the Society’s branches.

in Land and labour
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Crisis and decline
Martin Crawford

The chapter charts the final year in the Society’s history. It opens with the visit to Wisconsin of its most influential critic, Joseph Barker, and tracks his continuing quarrel with William Evans as he and Thomas Twigg concluded their British tour. By early 1850 the Society was at a crossroads, its future in jeopardy unless it solved its funding problems. The chapter examines its membership and finances and explains the steps taken to address organisational and resource issues. It notes the growing authority of the London branches and assesses the situation in the Potteries, where core supporters attempted to shore up the commitment to emigration. The focus then switches to the United States. During Twigg’s absence from Wisconsin, disquiet among settlers led to significant dissent which did not dissipate on his return in April. Letters home attacking the colony’s management began to appear in British newspapers, providing a mirror image of American settlement to the earlier correspondence. In claiming that settlers had been forced to endure appalling conditions, they made serious allegations about the colony’s management and the legal fragility of the Society’s land tenure on the new estate. Calls for an investigation grew, and in June a group of settlers formalised their criticisms in a 750-word memorial published in the local newspaper and subsequently reprinted in Britain. The remainder of the chapter documents the efforts to counter these attacks. It culminates in the takeover of the Society by the London branches, effectively marking its dissolution.

in Land and labour
Helen Smith

Francis Bacon's endorsement of the transformative power of print has been re-enacted in recent years by a number of historians of the book, who argue that the early modern period witnessed a profound shift from an oral to a literate, and particularly to a print-literate, culture. In line with a number of recent revisionist accounts which argue against any radical shift from an oral or manuscript culture to a putative 'age of print', this chapter seeks to test early modern understandings of print culture by asking whether Bacon's almost exact contemporary, William Shakespeare, shared his belief in the epoch-defining impact of the press. In his attention to textual matters, and to the detailed etymological heritage of the terms of the press, Shakespeare reveals himself to be a precise man, a neat man, an exact man: not necessarily a printed man, but certainly 'a man in print'.

in Shakespeare’s book
Fugitivity and forced exile in the age of American revolution, 1770–1783
Karen Cook Bell

This chapter examines the escape and forced exile of a mulatto woman named Margaret Grant who fled slavery in Baltimore, Maryland in 1770 and 1773. The analyses presented focus on exile as dissent and resistance and the multiple layers of exile such as forced removal, displacement, and agency that Margaret experienced. At stake in this discussion of fugitive women is demonstrating that black women’s resistance in the form of truancy and escape were central components of abolitionism during the Revolutionary Era. In fact, motherhood, freedom, and love of family propelled black women to escape bondage during the Revolutionary Era. By excavating the story of Margaret and other fugitive women, the integral role of black women in the eighteenth-century U.S. abolitionist movement is manifest.

in Women in exile in early modern Europe and the Americas
Gwenda Morgan

In the work of nineteenth-century historians women sank further into obscurity, with the singular exception of the writings of Elizabeth Ellet (1818–1877). Bancroft and Hildreth contented themselves with retelling the stories of the deaths of Jane McCrea and Hannah Caldwell. Modern women's history has its roots in the new social history and upheavals of the 1960s when old barriers came down, fresh vistas opened up, and the affinity of the social sciences with history was recognized. The rate of female literacy remained stagnant while that of men forged ahead. John Shy, one of the first of the new military historians, considered that the Americans were disadvantaged by the fact that they had fewer female support staff than the British, but Washington thought there were too many and that they put a strain on scarce resources.

in The debate on the American Revolution
Richard II and the defeat of poetry
Richard Wilson

This chapter explores the relationship between poetry and theatre in Richard II, and reads the opposition between Richard's antiquated model of kingship and Bolingbroke's theatrical reign as an allegory of Shakespeare's transition from the world of aristocratic patronage to the professional stage. Shakespeare's new business venture – becoming a shareholder of the Lord Chamberlain's Men, and thus part of the joint-stock company that was to own the Globe – opened up the playhouse 'to the new commercial monarchy of the mass market'. The chapter invites us to see Richard II as a meditation on Shakespeare's ambivalent position between 'crown and crowd, the monarch and the mob'. The irony, of course, is that this 'drama about the defeat of poetry' is itself a masterpiece of Shakespeare's poetic art: it is one of the few plays by Shakespeare written entirely in verse.

in Shakespeare’s book
With a New Introduction by Marcelo G. Kohen
Author:

The author of this book, Sir Robert Yewdall Jennings, was one of the most distinguished British specialists in the field of International Law of the last century. The book starts with the traditional analysis of the different 'modes' of acquisition of territorial sovereignty as developed in doctrine since the very beginning of the science of international law. One of the merits of the book is precisely that, instead of focusing exclusively on or absolutely disregarding them, an approach other authors had adopted, it harmonizes the traditional modes with other elements that may influence the determination of sovereignty and that were not taken into account in the past. The traditional five 'modes' of acquisition of territorial sovereignty described by doctrine were: (1) occupation (2) prescription (3) cession (4) accession or accretion and (5) subjugation or conquest. In order to encompass other elements coming into play in the analysis of the acquisition of territorial sovereignty, the book included references to two devices of use in any dispute about territory: intertemporal law and the critical date. To complete the picture, a separate chapter of the book considers the place of recognition, acquiescence and estoppel in the realm of acquisition of title to territorial sovereignty. The book also clarifies the scope of estoppel in the field. It cannot by itself constitute a root of title, but it can assist in its determination.

Heinz Lubasz

There's definitely something odd about the way Adam Smith and the Wealth of Nations have come into vogue during the past fifteen years or so: partisans of what has come to be known as the 'free market' present themselves as true disciples of Smith - yet they seem to care much more for his image than for his ideas. The invisible hand is unquestionably the best-known ingredient of the Wealth of Nations, as well as being the one most beloved of the free marketeers; but it is also the least well understood, and in the course of time it has become the most crassly distorted. By reducing the complexities of the Smithian concept of self-interest to a single, undifferentiated interest in material gain, modern economists (and by no means the 'free marketeers' alone) make Adam Smith's concept of the invisible hand virtually unintelligible - in the first place to themselves.

in Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations