Histories of colonial medicine in sub-Saharan Africa have tended to focus on the role of the colonial state in establishing and running health systems. Where voluntary agency roles have been considered, it has presented them as operating outside that system, independent and isolated. This chapter explores how voluntary (mission) sector health service providers interacted with the colonial state in creating a health system in Tanganyika characterised by its public-private hybridity. Mission health providers were formally made part of the country’s health system, a process that led to the creation of a distinct ‘voluntary sector’ which continued to shape non-state action in social development and welfare after independence. The colonial state relied upon voluntary sector engagement to meet (however partially) its obligations in health care provision; and the missions saw their incorporation into the official health system as an opportunity to exercise greater power in helping to shape health policy and direction, as well as a means to ensure their primacy as non-state voluntary actors.
This chapter considers the limitations of political consumerism as a channel for a humanitarian impulse and explores whether the everyday practice of consumption can be a space of care and concern for international justice. Analysing the consumption of children’s toys and the online discussions of boycotting ‘unsafe’ toys, the chapter explores how a neoliberal parenting culture in the West, which promotes a highly individualised and intensive model of parenting, affects a more universal and collective call for a global international humanitarianism. While social media provides opportunities to share and discuss information about toy safety, it is argued that emotion is an important part of humanitarian mobilisation, and that the emotions of consumption are often thwarted by the identity politics of consumption.
Felix M. Bivens
The University of Brighton (UoB) received a grant from the American-based Atlantic Philanthropies Foundation to create an institutional infrastructure for supporting community-based research (CBR) in Brighton and the surrounding counties of East and West Sussex. Community-University Partnership Programme's (CUPP) role was to act as a nexus between academics and community groups, promoting CBR on both sides of the town-gown line. Many of the CUPP staff came from voluntary sector backgrounds rather than from university roles, which helped them to liaise between the two different cultures, establishing trusted, longstanding relationships with community partners. Although initial projects were based on existing relationships, CUPP took lessons from the science shop model and soon created a helpdesk for fielding community inquiries. Community and Personal Development module (CPD) has been a significant force in helping to bridge the gap between student volunteerism and CBR.
The Zanzibar Maternity Association (ZMA) was a charitable organisation established in 1918 to help Zanzibari women during parturition. Majority funding came from the Arab and Indian communities who, correspondingly, had considerable say in the organisation’s remit and agenda. Although the colonial British government had no alternative maternity service of their own on Zanzibar, this chapter shows how anxious the colonial government was about ZMA activities and influence during the 1930s and 1940s. Struggles over ZMA control are positioned as revealing of broader anxieties over the erosion of colonial hegemony and also as demonstrative of the highly flexible way the British constructed racialised discourses about health and hygiene. Ultimately, the British rejected cooperation when it was not precisely on the terms that they wanted.
The Marshall Plan films about Greece
This chapter examines how Marshall Plan documentary films about reconstruction in Greece mobilised national culture and identity politics in their audio-visual rhetoric. Addressing the films’ humanitarian narratives, the chapter suggests Marshall Plan documentaries inaugurated a visual politics of neo-humanitarianism. It analyses how classical antiquity is evoked in the films to stand not only for Greece’s reconstruction but also for Western Europe’s future and its alignment with the US vision of a geopolitical ‘pax Americana’. Focusing on Humphrey Jennings’ The Good Life (1952), the chapter explores a historical dialectic between modern and classical Greece that positions the Marshall Plan aid within a dual perspective of national reconstruction and universal necessity.
A project on alcohol and older people in Brighton
Juliet Millican and Angie Hart
The Cheers!? project has resulted in further collaboration between Age Concern Brighton, Hove and Portslade, and the University of Brighton, who are now working together on an 'innovative research project' about older people and well-being. The concern was an increase in the number of older people using their services who may have problems with alcohol. Partners were aware of a lack of local evidence and also a lack of services specifically for older people with alcohol problems. They commissioned the university to conduct a scoping study, with further funding from the Brighton and Sussex Community Knowledge Exchange (BSCKE). From the perspective of the Brighton and Hove Drug and Alcohol Action Team (DAAT), the project offered potential for thinking about work with the voluntary sector.
The PRIA experience
This chapter provides an account of community education methods which Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA) uses in its efforts to make development and democracy equitable and inclusive. It uses select and representative cases to provide an overview of PRIA's community education experiences. PRIA's community education and training programme is based on the principles of collaboration and partnership with local grass-roots organizations. In its cognitive role, PRIA has provided the participatory research framework for education and training. It has been the main source of information around which training programmes are built. The participatory research framework has a citizenship perspective, too. The education and training of marginalized communities in leadership, for instance, emphasizes nurturing independent, rights-bearing citizens who articulate their concerns and priorities, access resources and opportunities and, with increased capacities, make strategic life choices. Governance should be concerned with the restoration of citizenship rights equally and equitably.
Lessons from case studies from the South and North
Rajesh Tandon and Edward T. Jackson
Community-university research partnerships can enable the co-production of valuable, actionable new knowledge, especially in the areas of livelihoods, environment and governance and their intersection. International cooperation can provide financial and methodological support for community-university partnerships. This chapter presents lessons from case studies from the South and North, which demonstrates the vitality, creativity and relevance of local community-university research partnerships. A main theme addressed by the Southern case studies is strengthening local governance. The Southern cases underscore the central role that participatory methods for inquiry and engagement play in the success of community-university research partnerships. Participatory methods are at the core of successful community-university research partnerships. The Southern cases show that community-university research partnerships can advance government policies to promote better livelihoods, environmental sustainability and indigenous culture.
Chris Beasley and Heather Brook
The final chapter in Part II of the book attending to analysis of citizen-to-citizen relationalities concerns fraternity, or masculine homosociality, and its significance in ‘bromance’. It is commonplace, indeed ubiquitous, in Hollywood films to foreground men and their interactions. However, the attention given to intimate relationality between men in bromance movies distinguishes them from the usual representations of men and male-to-male friendships and links them with ‘chick flicks’ and romantic comedies. This chapter continues our exploration of gender, intimacy, and heteronormativity to demonstrate that the realm of the personal is politically salient for men as well as women.
Health and social welfare of disadvantaged families in Brighton and Hastings
Kim Aumann and Angie Hart
The Bouncing Back Project leader, Angie Hart, has a longstanding interest in building resilience that spans her research and practice development career in community health issues with roots in personal history as a mother of three children with complex needs. Angie is also the former Academic Director of the Community-University Partnership Programme at the University of Brighton. The partnership which works through a 'communities of practice' (CoP) model focuses on improving health and well-being by building resilience with disadvantaged children, young people and their families, through resilience therapy (RT). The CoP included a subgroup involved in planning training and evaluation activities. Subsequent development has resulted in a second CoP in Hastings (eighteen members). The CoP model brings together people who are eager to improve the health and well-being of children, young people and families experiencing tough times.