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A reassessment of the relationship between Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke
Christian Weikop

This chapter examines the changing priorities of German gallerists, art critics and historians, concerning the significance of the first two manifestations of artistic expressionism, namely Die Brücke and Der Blaue Reiter circles, shifting alliances that would partly lead to their polarization in various monographs on the movement. The significance of art historian Lothar Buchheim, who attempted to define the distinctive character of these expressionist formations, while effectively contributing to this ‘polarization’ is discussed. In addition to considering issues of ‘reception’ from the inception of these avant-gardes through to post-1945 surveys when the phenomenon of expressionism was more closely investigated, this chapter reassesses the web of associations between these Berlin and Munich-based artists, connections and collaborations that have only been mentioned rather than fully discussed in the literature to date. A key aspect of this chapter is an analysis of the ties that link the self-styled leader of Die Brücke, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, with the driving force of Der Blaue Reiter, Wassily Kandinsky, as well as the critical importance of Franz Marc, who was the mediator between both circles. The author also considers the relationship of Die Brücke and Der Blaue Reiter in light of the aesthetics of Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche.

in German Expressionism
Acoustic communities, aesthetic colonization, and sound imperialism
Ming-Yuen S. Ma

The final chapter juxtaposes Clifford’s idea of an ‘ethnographic ear’ with contemporary media artworks that engage with the politics of location, geography, and landscape through sound and listening. Schafer’s discussion of ‘acoustic communities’ and ‘sound imperialism,’ as well as Michael Bull’s study of ‘aesthetic colonization’, serve as the overarching theoretical framework that informs these investigations. Through a series of ‘transductive’ exchange with six case studies, including location recordings by Spanish sound artist Francisco López and the collective Ultra-red, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer’s installation Frequency and Volume: Relational Architecture 9 (2003), a public art project by Elana Mann, and Maryanne Amacher and Bill Fontana’s live transmissions, the ideas of colonialism and imperialism, nature and pollution, community and access, site and non-site, public and private are worked with and through. This chapter proposes new ways of understanding sound through space, and vice versa.

in There is no soundtrack
Rethinking art, media, and the audio-visual contract
Author: Ming-Yuen S. Ma

There is no soundtrack is a specific yet expansive study of sound tactics deployed in experimental media art today. It analyses how audio and visual elements interact and produce meaning, drawing from works by contemporary media artists ranging from Chantal Akerman, to Nam June Paik, to Tanya Tagaq. It then links these analyses to discussions on silence, voice, noise, listening, the soundscape, and other key ideas in sound studies. In making these connections, the book argues that experimental media art – avant-garde film, video art, performance, installation, and hybrid forms – produces radical and new audio-visual relationships that challenge and destabilize the visually-dominated fields of art history, contemporary art criticism, cinema and media studies, and cultural studies as well as the larger area of the human sciences. This book directly addresses what sound studies scholar Jonathan Sterne calls ‘visual hegemony’. It joins a growing body of interdisciplinary scholarship that is collectively sonifying the study of culture while defying the lack of diversity within the field by focusing on practitioners from transnational and diverse backgrounds. Therefore, the media artists discussed in this book are of interest to scholars and students who are exploring aurality in related disciplines including gender and feminist studies, queer studies, ethnic studies, postcolonial studies, urban studies, environmental analysis, and architecture. As such, There Is No Soundtrack makes meaningful connections between previously disconnected bodies of scholarship to build new, more complex and reverberating frameworks for the study of art, media, and sound.

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Wassily Kandinsky and Walter Benjamin on language and perception
Annie Bourneuf

This chapter wagers that situating Walter Benjamin's early writings on language in conversation with Wassily Kandinsky’s in Der Blaue Reiter and Concerning the Spiritual in Art may elucidate Benjamin's hermetic and fragmentary texts. It therefore constructs a dialogue between Kandinsky's writings, which Benjamin read and admired, and Benjamin's rethinking of the relation between language and perception in the late 1910s and early 1920s. It argues that Benjamin's philosophy of language may draw on procedures Kandinsky proposed for defamiliarizing words – for perceiving them as if they were incomprehensible, divorcing them from what Kandinsky calls their ‘practical-instrumental meaning’. Kandinsky speaks of two methods for this: saying a word repeatedly and viewing the form of a letter as a ‘thing’, an arrangement of lines. However, whereas Kandinsky argues for the expressive power of the visual shape of written language, seeing it as something like a living human body communicating emotion through its gestures, Benjamin sees what he calls the word's ‘skeleton’ as expressionless in the extreme. Benjamin both takes on Kandinsky's ideas and turns them upside down: like Kandinsky, Benjamin too imagines the graphic shapes of letters as anthropomorphic, but does so in order to emphasize their deathly expressionlessness.

in German Expressionism
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The material and visual culture of the Stuart Courts, 1589–1619
Author: Jemma Field

This book analyses Anna of Denmark’s material and visual patronage at the Stuart courts, examining her engagement with a wide array of expressive media including architecture, garden design, painting, music, dress, and jewellery. Encompassing Anna’s time in Denmark, England, and Scotland, it establishes patterns of interest and influence in her agency, while furthering our knowledge of Baltic-British transfer in the early modern period. Substantial archival work has facilitated a formative re-conceptualisation of James and Anna’s relationship, extended our knowledge of the constituents of consortship in the period, and has uncovered evidence to challenge the view that Anna followed the cultural accomplishments of her son, Prince Henry. This book reclaims Anna of Denmark as the influential and culturally active royal woman that her contemporaries knew. Combining politics, culture, and religion across the courts of Denmark, Scotland, and England, it enriches our understanding of royal women’s roles in early modern patriarchal societies and their impact on the development of cultural modes and fashions. This book will be of interest to upper level undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses on early modern Europe in the disciplines of Art and Architectural History, English Literature, Theatre Studies, History, and Gender Studies. It will also attract a wide range of academics working on early modern material and visual culture, and female patronage, while members of the public who enjoy the history of courts and the British royals will also find it distinctively appealing.

Jemma Field

Nuances the male-dominated history of collecting and display at the Stuart court, and the use of the “Italianate” as the benchmark of cultural erudition. Confirms that Anna’s palaces were largely filled with Flemish and Dutch artworks and argues that, far from being a sign of her disinterest or naïveté, these goods were a tool for building affinity with her Danish ancestors and siblings while highlighting the continued currency of artistic centres outside of Italy. It further shows the queen facilitating cultural transfer between the Stuart and Oldenburg courts as numerous parallels link Anna's tastes, interests, and patronage, with those of her brother, King Christian IV of Denmark (1577-1648), which are particularly noticeable in the realms of painting and music.

in Anna of Denmark
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Jemma Field

Concluding remarks that highlight fertile avenues for future/ongoing study in the area.

in Anna of Denmark
Jemma Field

Sets the stage for the thematic chapters that follow, outlines the importance of Anna’s natal identity and remaps her political and marital dynamic with James. It discusses related issues of material agency, confessional identity, and power-brokering, together with the notable influence of the ongoing ties within her family network. Introduces the types of archival evidence used throughout the book.

in Anna of Denmark
Jemma Field

Examines the ways in which Anna conceived of, and transformed, her court spaces in Scotland and England. It moves beyond the narrow focus of earlier scholarship - the modernisation of Somerset House, or commission of the Queen's House (Greenwich) - and takes a wider view of Anna’s building activities at all of her favoured residences - Dunfermline, Somerset House, Greenwich Palace, and Oatlands Manor. It rehabilitates the importance of Anna’s upbringing as a source for her knowledge of, and interest in, innovative gardens and buildings. In particular, her father, King Frederik II (1534-1588), is shown to be a fertile source of inspiration and emulation in his patronage of classical design, elaborate waterworks, and figurative structures. The detailed examination of Anna’s jointure, income, and mobility furthers our understanding of the financial, geographic, and hierarchic structures that made up the Stuart court.

in Anna of Denmark
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Jemma Field

Provides a critical evaluation of Anna of Denmark's historiography and introduces the key methodological pathways and central arguments of the book. It critically engages with concepts of patronage, self-fashioning and display, gender roles, labels and identities, and transcultural exchange in the early modern period. Drawing on insights from feminism, and social and economic history, together with untapped archival material, it presents a new conceptualisation of the Stuart marriage; traditional concepts of patronage, ownership, and political power are examined; the importance of Anna’s directorial role is highlighted.

in Anna of Denmark