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Chris Beasley and Heather Brook

One of the most pervasive myths reiterated in Hollywood movies is the narrative of virtuous and hence legitimate order – the story of the good nation, the good society, and legitimate leadership and authority. Films which focus on order, on ‘us’, elicit a sense of identification with ‘home’, linking not only self and collective but also citizen and nation in positive, active constructions of security. In this chapter, we narrow the scope of ‘security’ to demonstrate how political myths concerning security, social collectivity, and government play out in cinematic treatments of war.

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The Unknown Famine

Television and the politics of British humanitarianism

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Andrew Jones

This chapter focuses on how television coverage of major disasters in the global South shaped the historical and political trajectory of humanitarian aid in Britain, through a case study of British television coverage of the deadly famine in Ethiopia in 1973. ITV’s The Unknown Famine shaped the trajectory of British humanitarianism in three important ways: it provided an empathic demonstration of the power of televised images of human suffering to mobilise the public; it was an important signpost for wider critiques of media representation and disaster fundraising imagery emerging within the aid community; and it contributed towards significant changes in the British government’s approach to disaster relief policy.

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‘United Nations children’ in Hollywood cinema

Juvenile actors and humanitarian sentiment in the 1940s

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Michael Lawrence

This chapter examines specific ideological and aesthetic dimensions of the representation of children in American films produced during and directly after the Second World War in relation to the promotion and operations of the United Nations. It analyses how vulnerable children from the world’s war zones appeared and functioned in four Hollywood studio pictures. These films presented groups of children to harness humanitarian sentiment in support of the ideology and activities of the UN. While the figure of the child acquired new cultural and political significance in the era of the United Nations’ wartime and post-war endeavours in humanitarianism, the presentation and performances of Hollywood’s juvenile actors simultaneously became subject to new modes of moral apprehension and aesthetic evaluation.

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Steve Sohmer

This chapter pinpoints 27 December 1601 as the date of the first performance of Twelfth Night – and demonstrates that Shakespeare wrote his play for two audiences, one at Elizabeth’s Court, the other at the Inns of Court.

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Steve Sohmer

This chapter identifies some of Shakespeare’s unrecognized tributes to friends, former patrons, and others who were dear to him.

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‘The most potent public relations tool ever devised’?

The United States Peace Corps in the early 1960s

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Agnieszka Sobocinska

This chapter focuses on the United States Peace Corp and explores the nature and effects of the Peace Corps’ publicity, media and popular culture portrayals during the 1960s. It shows how the Peace Corps rendered international development into a topic for mainstream discussion and public engagement, and traces some of the political outcomes of this publicity. By focusing on volunteers’ altruistic intentions Peace Corps publicity portrayed international development as a humanitarian project. Presenting US intervention as a positive expression of American altruism, the Peace Corps helped popularise the view that America had a responsibility to modernise the ‘underdeveloped’ nations of the world. This chapter argues that, by privileging American viewpoints and eliding competing visions, Peace Corps publicity helped normalise the logic of intervention.

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‘Telegenically dead Palestinians’

Cinema, news media and perception management of the Gaza conflicts

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Shohini Chaudhuri

This chapter examines media coverage of the Gaza conflicts and considers what occurs when humanitarian images of Palestinian casualties take centre stage. The chapter argues that a media outcome that appears to be favourable to the Palestinians, in that it focuses on their suffering, can actually have the opposite effect. Addressing UK, US and Israeli news media, as well as popular television and the documentary films Waltz with Bashir (Ari Folman, 2008) and Where Should the Birds Fly (Fida Qishta, 2013), the chapter addresses the ways ‘perception management’ can serve to divorce the public from realities of state violence through a kind of cinematic derealisation that enables states to reduce perceptions of blame for their atrocities and act with impunity.

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Lamine Kane, Aliou Guissé and Latyr Diouf

Lamine Kane and Juliet Millican used a travel grant from the British Council to meet for exploratory discussions in Dakar with members of sub-Saharan Africa Participatory Action Research Network (REPAS), the Department of Applied Economics (ENEA) at Cheikh Diop University (UCAD), and nearby local communities. These discussions led to the joint preparation of a full project proposal, which was funded by a partnership grant from the British Council. It was against the backdrop that the partners launched their new project. The initiative aimed to pilot a new six-month postgraduate course for students from Cheikh Anta Diop University and ENEA leading to a Certificate in Community Engagement for Employability and Entrepreneurship. Senegal is a former French colony and Dakar was the base from which France conceived and implemented its 'assimilation policy', which aimed to make Senegalese citizens French and to integrate them into the French culture and nation.

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Social financing, social economy

Chantier de l’Économie Sociale Trust, Montreal

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Jean-Marc Fontan and Denis Bussières

Managers of social economy enterprises have been expressing the need to have access to financial products other than traditional grants and loans, while at the same time asking how best to maintain their business capital over the long term. They deemed that new products which kept their social mission in mind would be needed. At the request of the Chantier de l'Economie Sociale Trust, a study on these issues was initiated by the Community-University Research Alliance (CURA) on the social economy. A working group gathered key players in the social economy sector and university researchers interested in the question of financing within this sector. A research partnership group for financing the social economy finance known as the Chantier d'activite partenariale Financement (CAP) was created within the social economy CURA. Politically, the Fiducie supports Quebec's social innovation system, developed around the social economy.

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Social disease and social science

The intellectual influence of non-medical research on policy and practice in the Colonial Medical Service in Tanganyika and Uganda

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Shane Doyle

Colonial medicine has been depicted in recent scholarship as a key element in the imperial state’s attempt to comprehend, monitor and control subject communities. Earlier hagiographies too emphasised doctors’ intimate knowledge of local attitudes and practices, shaped by humanitarian concern and long service. Yet contemporary sources indicate that doctors were frequently aware of the limits to their understanding of indigenous societies. As colonial states matured, Medical Officers’ lack of knowledge of the underlying causes of disease among empire's indigenous populations provoked increasing concern. Some conditions, defined as social diseases, demanded particular attention, because their incidence was recognised as being shaped by the imperfectly understood nature of local societies. This chapter will examine the nature of colonial knowledge, and the formulation of medical interventions, by focusing on colonial reactions to two social diseases in two neighbouring societies: sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Buhaya in colonial Tanganyika and malnutrition in Buganda, the largest kingdom in Uganda.