This chapter considers inclusion and exclusion from the perspective of younger immigrants and second-generation members of a long-established religious minority community in the rural West of Ireland. Drawing on the narrative contributions of thirty-three ethnically and culturally diverse Muslim teenagers, it explores the complex dynamics of inclusion and exclusion in school and community settings. The discussion highlights barriers to inclusion faced by Muslim teens while attending school, drawing attention to issues such as dress codes, religious observances and language barriers as being particularly challenging. The discussion also outlines the challenges faced by Muslim teens in negotiating community membership, emphasising intergenerational conflict as an issue affecting daily life. Using a novel categorisation of migrant cohorts, the chapter offers a nuanced analysis which reveals Muslim teens as actively negotiating their positions as ‘insiders’ and/or ‘outsiders’ on an ongoing basis and from a range of available cohort positions. In doing so it highlights the variety of pathways to inclusion employed, as well as the risks of exclusion facing young immigrants.
Although not immigrants, the experiences of Travellers – an Irish ethnic minority who have experienced intergenerational racism and discrimination – contextualise the kinds of barrier potentially faced by some immigrants included in this book, particularly in light of the failure of the Irish state to address their experiences as outsiders. A child born to Traveller parents in 2016 is three and a half times less likely to reach their first birthday, and if he or she survives, can expect to live up to fifteen years less than a child born to settled parents. This child ismore likely to develop chronic health conditions, suffer from poor mental health and die by suicide. Health inequalities are indicators of larger social relations that produce asymmetrical differences. They are historically, politically, socially and culturally constructed. In order to understand how Traveller health continues to be phenomenally poorer than that of the settled community, this chapter will examine how mainstream and targeted policies and services have failed to meaningfully address Traveller health inequalities in Ireland. It argues that mainstreaming approaches to health, whereby service providers are ‘oblivious’ to difference, further excludes Travellers from services as they are rendered invisible and their particular needs remain overlooked.
Northern Ireland is shifting from a Province focused on ethnic conflict and community polarisation to an increasingly diverse society. The scope for multiple or intersectional identities, however, is limited in the political sphere. This chapter examines the role that political division and power-sharing have played in the lack of significant progress in mainstreaming responses to new migrants (European migrant workers, refugees and asylum seekers), as well as long-established groups (British Asian and Chinese) within social policy in the region, and the political integration of groups outside of the ‘two communities’ in Northern Ireland. The construction of political parties along sectarian lines in Northern Ireland, and a power-sharing system which sees political advantages given to parties which designate as ‘green’ or ‘orange’, validate the fears held by many migrants that they cannot participate in the political process without choosing sides. This compounds the disengagement of minorities in the region and further reduces the accountability of political leaders to them. The social and institutional reinforcement of the two-community narrative inhibits integration and the mainstreaming of minority identity into public policy, which has a deleterious effect on provision of health and social care services, education, employment and social mobility for these groups.
This chapter examines the extent to which Roma have their human rights realised in Ireland from an intersectional perspective. It examines how the operations, interactions and patterns of subordination, including racism and discrimination based on gender, ethnicity and migrant status, are embedded in institutions, legislation and policy, resulting in the exclusion and marginalisation of Roma in Ireland. Using data from the national needs assessment of Roma in Ireland, the experiences of discrimination and exclusion that Roma face across services and in public spaces are discussed, with a particular focus on Roma women. The chapter argues that ‘neutral’ policies combined with a legacy of institutional racism across Europe place many Roma in vulnerable situations. A narrow focus on formal equality and a narrative that ‘equal treatment is synonymous with the same treatment’ is used to legitimise policies that operate to exclude many Roma. Roma are pitched as the ‘problem’ and blamed for the exclusion they face, which is used to fuel further negative stereotypes about the community. Finally this chapter looks at the impact and consequences of institutional racism and exclusion, and Roma responses to this exclusion. It argues that it is crucial to acknowledge systematic structural inequalities and to institutionalise substantive equality to progress Roma rights in Ireland.
Polish people currently form the largest ethnic minority in Northern Ireland. Sectarian divides within Northern Irish society have affected how Poles have felt included and excluded in local communities. The focus of this chapter is on perceptions of inclusion and exclusion among Polish migrants in Belfast. It critically examines migrants’ constructions of space in Belfast, which is a city entrenched with social divisions, along lines of religion, ethnicity and class. The chapter draws on longitudinal interviews with fifteen Poles who have lived in Belfast for a decade in Protestant, Catholic and mixed areas of the city. Particular attention is paid to how the Polish migrants make sense of spaces ‘in between’, which include streets, alleyways, sidewalks, bus stops, parks and open spaces. The chapter sheds light on the everyday experiences of exclusion and inclusion and how the perceptions of Polish settlers have shifted over time. It also addresses the reactions of interviewees to changes in social and political attitudes in the UK in the wake of the Brexit vote.
Opinion columns and pseudo-scientific articles exploring immigration and integration are now the primary channels for overt racism in the Irish media, and their proliferation prompts a necessary exploration of their established form and growing influence. A range of columnists regularly vilify Muslims, Roma and Travellers, particularly drawing on ideas of barbarism, cultural genocide and population control, and defiantly testing the legal limits of incitement to hatred. Constructions of Irish culture as monolithic in the face of an immigration regime which imports failed multiculturalism and racism necessarily position migrants as continuing outsiders and the creators of their own exclusion. Clear connections can be made between racist discourses in Irish media and violence against migrants and ethnic minorities. This chapter explores how Irish media outlets are facilitating and promoting the normalisation of racist discourses, and the implications of this for the construction of debates which take seriously the challenges of integration in practice and in the context of growing anti-immigrant racism.
Pablo Rojas Coppari
This chapter examines Filipino migration to Ireland through the lens of the care industry, informed by the experiences of migrants in a range of occupations and with varied legal statuses. It draws on semi-structured interviews with migrant domestic and care workers, observations of the Domestic Workers Action Group and the work conducted by the Migrant Rights Centre Ireland in this sector. Filipinos in Ireland have often been heralded as an example of successful integration, the example of those in the nursing profession often being cited. This assumption obscures the reality of a large number of Filipinos, working as domestic workers, childminders, cleaners and carers; they often find themselves trapped in the labour market, unable to progress as a consequence of discrimination and often exposed to the exploitation and isolation of low-paid caring occupations. Exclusionary labour migration and family reunification policies have resulted in many remaining undocumented in the state, adding another layer of vulnerability to many of them. This chapter also explores the coping strategies found by the community to overcome some of these structural barriers: these range from community-led initiatives to mechanisms to circumvent discrimination and control.
Immigrants and other outsiders
Bryan Fanning and Lucy Michael
Immigrants as Outsiders in the Two Irelands offers contributions which speak to the full range of factors shaping new and available pathways to integration, from the context into which immigrants arrive, the characteristics of immigrant groups affecting their emigration and immigration, the biases and structural barriers they encounter in the host society, and the multiple ways in which they seek to adapt to and change the institutions which facilitate integration. Using the theory of segmented assimilation to frame these contributions, we establish a framework through which we invite our readers to view the successes and adaptations of the migrants represented here as well as the structural powerlessness with which many of them, but not all, are faced. We note the limited choices that attend ‘outsider’ status, and the impact of these economically, politically and culturally, and the ways in which combinations of ‘insider’ and ‘outsider’ positions affect integration, the ability of migrants (and children of migrants) to thrive, and their future orientations to the opportunities available on the island of Ireland.
Bryan Fanning and Lucy Michael
Legislation and state policies aimed at addressing racism have evolved differently in the two Irelands. In the Republic both grew out of anti-racist activism concerned since the 1980s with anti-Traveller prejudice and, as immigration rose, out of NGO pressure upon the Irish state to address its responsibilities under the UN Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. In Northern Ireland, legislative and institutional responses to racism were informed by UK practices, particularly as NGO advocates of anti-racism were influenced by mainland UK norms and debates. However, responses were later and weaker than elsewhere in the UK as gridlock in Northern Irish politics imposed limits on progressive social policy. This chapter traces the institutional failures to respond adequately to experiences of racism in both jurisdictions, the effectiveness of civil society responses to racism, and the leverage of international accountability to make progress. The chapter draws particular attention to the shape and strength of the NGO sector and its ability to effect change in the face of institutional resistance, as well as the impact of ‘hate crime’ frameworks.
Edited by: Bryan Fanning and Lucy Michael
Immigrants as Outsiders in the Two Irelands examines how a wide range of
immigrant groups who settled in the Republic of Ireland and in Northern Ireland
from the 1990s are faring today. It asks to what extent might different
immigrant communities be understood as outsiders in both
Immigrants as Outsiders in the Two Irelands brings together research on a wide range of immigrant communities. The book provides a sharp contemporary account of integration that situates migrants’ diverse experiences of exclusion within a detailed overall picture of the range of ways in which they have succeeded socially, economically and politically in building their lives in Ireland and Northern Ireland. Chapters include analyses of the specific experiences of Polish, Filipino, Muslim, African, Roma, refugee and asylum seeker populations and of the experiences of children, as well as analyses of the impacts of education, health, employment, housing, immigration law, asylum policy, the media and the contemporary politics of borders and migration on successful integration.
Immigrants as Outsiders in the Two Irelands offers a unique cross-border perspective on migrants on the island of Ireland today which situates the Irish experience within the wider politics of migration control, Brexit and integration policy. This book is a significant and timely analysis suitable for students of migration at any level in a wide range of social science disciplines.