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Assassinations and bomb attacks in the late nineteenth and early twenty-first centuries
Charlotte Klonk

The introduction argues that images are of central importance in the propagation of acts of terror. Where an inferior militant group challenges the supremacy of the state, it is not the actual number of casualties that counts but the capacity to spread horror and fear among the masses and potential glory among sympathisers. The chapter introduces the concept of patterns of images in the media, discusses the concept of media frames and the term terror as well as the literature on terrorism and concludes with a critical reflection on the evidentiary character of pictures in this context. It establishes that fighting with images is a kind of psychological battle in which unintended consequences are the rule rather than the exception.

in Terror
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Hostage-takings and aircraft hijackings since the 1960s
Charlotte Klonk

In the second half of the twentieth century another form of terror dominated the media: hostage-takings and aircraft hijackings. The images that appeared in the media differed from bomb attacks and explosions in significant ways. Instead of suggesting proximity to the events, portraits of hostages circulated that showed individuals at unknown and distant places. Hence the visual reportage is usually characterised by an uncanny mixture of distance and urgency. Case studies in this chapter range chronologically from the Tupamaros in Uruguay to the RAF in Germany in the 1970s, from the mass hostage-takings in Lebanon in the 1980s to Al Qaida and IS footage of beheadings at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The chapter also includes a discussion of aircraft hijackings in the 1970s. It concludes with a reflection on the particular narratives that hostage-taking and hijackings generate in subsequent autobiographies, films and literature. While at the time of the appearance of the images the fate of the victims is uncertain and highly contested, subsequent stories often provide a happy ending and often blur fact and fiction.

in Terror
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Charlotte Klonk

Although bomb attacks and hostage-takings differ in their imagery, they share one common aspect: media reports on acts of terror always include pictures of the perpetrators and normally end when they have been caught and sentenced. The sequence ranges from mug shots of various provenances to surveillance camera footage, from depictions of execution in the nineteenth century to photographs of capture in the twentieth. The chapter discusses the significance of these images for projections of the enemy. Case studies include the most extensive man hunt campaign to this day, the search for members of the German RAF in the 1970s, the ambivalence of imagery of women and of radical-Islamic perpetrators. The chapter also looks at propaganda images issued by militant groups themselves and their attempt for self-promotion in courtrooms. It concludes with a reflection on the general ambivalence of these images. As the case studies from the nineteenth century to today show, nothing and nobody can guarantee that an image which for one side clearly represents an enemy will not become the means for hero worship on the other, and vice versa.

in Terror
From wanted posters to propaganda videos
Charlotte Klonk

In the second half of the twentieth century another form of terror dominated the media: hostage-takings and aircraft hijackings. The images that appeared in the media differed from bomb attacks and explosions in significant ways. Instead of suggesting proximity to the events, portraits of hostages circulated that showed individuals at unknown and distant places. Hence the visual reportage is usually characterised by an uncanny mixture of distance and urgency. Case studies in this chapter range chronologically from the Tupamaros in Uruguay to the RAF in Germany in the 1970s, from the mass hostage-takings in Lebanon in the 1980s to Al Qaida and IS footage of beheadings at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The chapter also includes a discussion of aircraft hijackings in the 1970s. It concludes with a reflection on the particular narratives that hostage-taking and hijackings generate in subsequent autobiographies, films and literature. While at the time of the appearance of the images the fate of the victims is uncertain and highly contested, subsequent stories often provide a happy ending and often blur fact and fiction.

in Terror
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Charlotte Klonk
in Terror
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When images become weapons
Author: Charlotte Klonk

A battle of images is above all a psychological struggle. Unintended consequences are the rule rather than the exception. The book examines the role of images in media reports on terror from the nineteenth century to the present day. Looking at concrete case studies, Charlotte Klonk analyses image strategies and their patterns, traces their historical development and addresses the dilemma of effective counter strikes. She shows that the propaganda videos from the IS are nothing new. On the contrary, perpetrators of terror acts have always made use of images to spread their cause through the media – as did their enemy, the state. In the final chapter, Klonk turns to questions of ethics and considers the grounds for a responsible use of images. This is an indispensable book for understanding the background and dynamic of terror today.

Ron Johnston, Charles Pattie, and David Rossiter

Legislation enacted in 2011 introduced major changes to the rules governing British parliamentary boundary reviews. The new legislation, examined in this chapter, clearly established the priority of the arithmetic (equal electorates) principle over the organic; set relatively tight constraints on how far individual seats' electorate could deviate from the national average; and required that parliamentary boundaries be redrawn on a much more frequent basis than in the past. By 2019, the new legislation had guided two redistricting processes, though (for reasons discussed in the chapter) neither produced a new constituency map. However, the likely effects of both (incomplete) reviews are reviewed, and the strengths, weaknesses and operation of the new rules are discussed.

in Representative democracy?
Elliott Joslin’s diabetes research, 1898–1950
Oliver Falk

According to the conviction that accounting isn’t necessarily subordinate to economics, the chapter does not deal with accounting practices in a classical sense but aims to highlight the use and value of calculative practices in treatment and research. By examining Elliott Joslin’s principles and practices of diabetes therapy, it shall be shown how he used calculative and administrative techniques as a tool to combine both therapeutic measures and scientific investigation. Drawing on archival materials of the Joslin Diabetes Center, as well as on Joslin’s published manuals, textbooks, and early seminal articles, it shall, first, be shown how Joslin systematised his patient files for comparing cases and evaluating new therapies. Second, it will be shown how Joslin begun to conceptualised diabetes in rather epidemiological and socio-medical terms at the same time, which subsequently led to new collaborations between physicians, government authorities, life insurance companies, and patients bound together by accounting practices. Finally, it is focused on Joslin’s relationship with his patients and how the qualitative and quantitative information he gathered could be used in therapy and research.

in Accounting for health
The Mennonite church, the US National Institutes of Health, and the trade in healthy bodies, 1950–70
Laura Stark

Accounting shapes the epistemic possibilities of medical knowledge – and shows how practices seemingly ancillary to bioscience can alter both organisational and human bodies, as well as the available ways for living in each. From the 1950s through 1990s, members of Anabaptist churches, who joined ‘voluntary service’ programmes, were able to ‘volunteer’ as Normal Control human subjects at the US National Institutes of Health. Each group had a ‘unit leader,’ who worked informally as the churches’ local account. As documented in traditional archives and in a publicly available ‘vernacular archive’, Anabaptists were both accounting and being accounted for. First, Mennonites appeared literally in the legers of NIH. They were essential research materials whose time the government purchased for a given price. Accounting practices helped NIH and the Anabaptist churches temporarily to align their missions, which had the structural effect of allowing a moral market in healthy civilian bodies to emerge. Second, Anabaptists were enrolled at NIH in experiments, including studies of metabolism, for which bodies were seen as in vivo accounts through which scientists could record input and output. As a mode of attention in metabolic medicine, accounting clarifies when and how categories such as age, gender, and race, were made real and they reinforced shared social biases. Third, Anabaptists were doing the physical labour of bookkeeping at NIH. Their labour of accounting, and the practices of peer surveillance and discipline it required, enforced the embodied discipline that clinical researchers capitalised upon without needing to assert directly.

in Accounting for health
Calculation, paperwork, and medicine, 1500–2000

Accounting is about ‘how much’ and is usually assumed to be about money. It is viewed as a financial technology related to the administration of finances, costing, and the calculation of efficiency. But this book suggests a broader understanding of accounting, linking related perspectives and lines of research that have so far remained surprisingly unconnected: as a set of calculative practices and paper technologies that turn countable objects into manageable units, figures, and numbers that enable subsequent practices of reckoning, calculating, valuing, controlling, justifying, communicating, or researching and that generate and appear in account- or casebooks, ledgers, lists, or tables.

And Accounting for Health involves both money and medicine and raises moral issues, given that making a living from medical treatment has ethical ramifications. Profiting from the ‘pain and suffering of other people’ was as problematic in 1500 as it is in today’s debates about the economisation of medicine and the admissibility of for-profit hospitals. In current debates about economisation of medicine, it is hardly noticed that some versions of these patterns and problems has been with health and medicine for centuries – not only in the modern sense of economic efficiency, but also in a traditional sense of good medical practice and medical accountability.

Spanning a period of five centuries (1500–2011) and various institutional settings of countries in the Western world, Accounting for Health investigates how calculative practices have affected everyday medical knowing, how these practices changed over time, and what effects these changes have had on medicine and medical knowledge.