French community rejection and projection
Saskia Huc-Hepher

Chapter 4 focuses on the final component of the habitus triad: habits. The central premise of the chapter is that examining habits provides insights into individuated and community belonging, migratory emplacement, transnational cultural capital flows and attachment to and/or detachment from France. It sheds light on the broader ideological implications of everyday habits, particularly eating, drinking and healthcare, revealing hidden hegemonies and gendered/sexualised discrimination. Evolving dining habits and an embodiment of cosmopolitanism are demonstrated through participants’ openness to London’s multicultural cuisines. Similarly, their frequenting of English restaurants functions as a strategic emplacement method and an agentive means of performing belonging. A circular intercultural exchange is also discussed, with migratory flows leading to the adoption of British culinary habits in France just as London-French residents’ palates and cooking practices adapt to ‘host’ tastes – within limits. For, in accordance with the limitations of habitus transformation, their home-dining rituals remain fundamentally embedded in French culture, which again implicitly interconnects the migrants through a shared praxial repertoire, while disconnecting them from (perceived) postmigration customs. Drinking habits also set the migrants apart. They apprehend local drinking practices as excessive and vulgar, particularly regarding women. This gendered disparagement and culturally distinctive restraint marginalises them within the diasporic social space, while re-enacting local histories. The final section is dedicated to participants’ therapeutic habits, which are revealed to be increasingly demedicalised in London, where they enjoy the more human, less technical approach to healthcare and are critical of the chronic patriarchal hegemonies and endemic overmedicalisation experienced in France.

in French London
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‘We must love one another or/and die?’
Nigel Mather

Taking its cue from a line in a W.H. Auden poem, this final section analyses Perfect Sense (2011), a film about a deadly and unseen virus which breaks up human relationships and the stability of society as a way of bringing the cinematic story of ‘how we live now’ up to date. The remainder of the chapter reflects on how the generic fluidity of the films discussed may reflect increasing conceptions of sexual identities as existing in a fluid state of being. The chapter concludes that some very important and significant studies of love, desire and sex have been produced and realised by the film-makers and actors whose work has been discussed and analysed in the book as a whole.

in Sex and desire in British films of the 2000s
Susan Waller

Agostina Segatori, best known as a model for Vincent Van Gogh, posed in Paris during the Second Empire and Third Republic. This chapter situates her life and representations of her produced in Paris within the context of the history of Italian immigration to France and French perceptions of Italy and immigration. It traces the beginning of encounters between French artists and Italian models to Rome early in the century and follows the models’ emigration from the Italian peninsula to the French hexagon after mid-century. In Paris, Italian models became a focus for complex and conflicting ideas about immigration, cultural difference, and modernity which animated French discourse, both textual and visual. In the popular press Italians were represented as alien intruders, but within the Parisian artistic community, the French aesthetic tradition, which had long valorised Italian artistic production, shaped an alternative and far more positive view. For the immigrants, moving across borders to resettle in a foreign culture offered opportunities. The story of Agostina Segatori’s passage and the representations of her and other Italian models produced by Parisian artists illuminates both the perception of ‘Italianicity’ in the French imagination and immigrants’ negotiation of the transnational experience.

in Art and migration
Endogeneity and exogeneity in the struggle for recognition in Somalia
Harmonie Toros and Arrliya Sugal

At a recent meeting in Mogadishu, a Somali elder challenged national and international scholars and policy-makers who were debating how best to destroy the non-state Islamist armed group al-Shabaab, active in Somalia for over a decade. ‘When you say, “destroy al-Shabaab,” you are speaking about destroying us. Al-Shabaab is part of Somali society. If you destroy al-Shabaab, you destroy us.’ The statement illustrated the role that recognition plays in engaging with non-state armed groups and the complexity surrounding this question.

The chapter examines how recognition in the case of non-state armed groups goes beyond the question of legality and legitimacy, to whether a group is recognised as part of the social fabric of a society or external to it. Al-Shabaab has had close ties to transnational non-state armed groups, particularly al-Qaeda, and numerous state actors have tried to engage with it as a mere extension of al-Qaeda. The claim that al-Shabaab is exogenous to the conflict and, indeed, to Somali society is a specific form of mis-recognition. Al-Shabaab reacts to this by denouncing the current government as being controlled from outside forces, too, thereby trying to undermine its legitimacy.

The mutual allegations that either the government or al-Shabaab are not ‘one of us’ deny the respective actor to have a legitimate role in the conflict and its solution. Thus, the chapter goes on to argue that the question of whether an armed non-state group is recognised as endogenous or not has direct consequences for conflict transformation.

in Armed non-state actors and the politics of recognition
Creations of diasporic aesthetics and migratory imagery in Chinese Australian Art
Birgit Mersmann

The inclusion of Chinese contemporary art in the exhibition, collection, and market circles of the global contemporary art world, was brought about by both the global response to the rise of China as an economic and cultural superpower and the increased migration of Chinese mainland artists since the 1980s, which elicited a diasporisation of the Chinese art scene. This particular constellation makes it necessary to rethink global contemporary Chinese art from the transnational perspective of migration and diaspora studies. By focusing on two Chinese overseas artists – Ah Xian and Fan Dong Wang, who share the experience of emigrating from mainland China to Australia in the aftermath of the Tiananmen Massacre of 1989 – this chapter analyses the production of diasporic Chineseness in Chinese Australian art with regard to the globalisation of contemporary Chinese art. Drawing on the concept of the ‘migrant image’, it discusses conditions for and elements of diasporic aesthetics and migratory imagery in the cross-cultural work of Chinese overseas art. This case-study analysis explores the impact of migration and the diasporic experience on the creation of art, in particular on the role of transculturation between Chinese and Western art traditions and the significance of image ambiguation for aesthetic transmigration.

in Art and migration

In the social sciences, recognition is considered a means to de-escalate conflicts and promote peaceful social interactions. This volume explores the forms that social recognition and its withholding may take in asymmetric armed conflicts. It discusses the short- and long-term risks and opportunities which arise when local, state and transnational actors recognise armed non-state actors (ANSAs), mis-recognise them or deny them recognition altogether.

The first part of the volume contextualises the politics of recognition in the case of ANSAs. It provides a historical overview of recognition regimes since the Second World War and their diverging impacts on ANSAs’ recognition claims. The second part is dedicated to original case studies, centring on specific conflict phases and covering ANSAs from all over the world. Some examine the politics of recognition during armed conflicts, others in conflict stalemates, and others still in mediation and peace processes. The third part of the volume discusses how the politics of recognition impacts practitioners’ engagement with conflict parties, gives an outlook on policies vis-à-vis ANSAs, and sketches trajectories for future research in the field.

The volume shows that, while non-recognition prevents conflict transformation, the recognition of armed non-state actors may produce counterproductive precedents and new modes of exclusion in intra-state and transnational politics.

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Revisioning the borders of community

Art and migration: revisioning the borders of community is a collective response to current and historic constructs of migration as disruptive of national heritage. This interplay of academic essays and art professionals’ interviews investigates how the visual arts – especially by or about migrants – create points of encounter between individuals, places, and objects. Migration has increasingly taken centre stage in contemporary art, as artists claim migration as a paradigm of artistic creation. The myriad trajectories of transnational artworks and artists’ careers outlined in the volume are reflected in the density and dynamism of fairs and biennales, itinerant museum exhibitions and shifting art centres. It analyses the vested political interests of migration terminology such as the synonymous use of ‘refugees’ and ‘asylum seekers’ or the politically constructed use of ‘diaspora’. Political and cultural narratives frame globalisation as a recent shift that reverses centuries of cultural homogeneity. Art historians and migration scholars are engaged in revisioning these narratives, with terms and methodologies shared by both fields. Both disciplines are elaborating an histoire croisée of the circulation of art that denounces the structural power of constructed borders and cultural gatekeeping, and this volume reappraises the historic formation of national identities and aesthetics heritage as constructed under transnational visual influences. This resonates with migrant artists’ own demands for self-determination in a display space that too often favours canonicity over hybridity. Centring migration – often silenced by normative archives or by nationalist attribution practices – is part of the workload of revisioning art history and decolonising museums.

On Skynet, self-healing swarms and Slaughterbots
Jutta Weber

Slaughterbots, a video clip that went viral on YouTube shortly after its release in November 2017, might be one of the most influential drone imaginaries to date. The video pictures the dangerous potential of the deployment of autonomous swarms of self-flying mini-drones equipped with Artificial Intelligence (AI) capabilities, cameras, sensors, face recognition and explosives. This chapter discusses drone surveillance from a data sensing point of view, problematizing the idea that drones can be autonomous machines without human influence.

in Drone imaginaries
Perceptions, interpretations, measures and consequences
Lioba Geis

Following the consolidation of Norman rule in Italy, the southern Italian Church underwent a period of profound change. Watching and guiding the transformations, Pope Leo IX and his successors were concerned with ensuring that they conformed to canon law, especially in their ecclesiastical structures. One major issue they confronted was simony, the purchase and sale of Church office.

This chapter investigates how simony was perceived and interpreted and what concrete measures were taken against it in southern Italy from the middle of the eleventh to the end of the twelfth century. In doing so, it asks what role simony played in the transformation of the southern Italian Church and whether the response to it was typical of contemporary approaches elsewhere or merely a regional peculiarity.

Through a careful examination of the available documents, it finds that the parameters for discussion of simony in southern Italy were set by the reformed papacy rather than by local clergy or secular Norman rulers. Furthermore, the battle against simony appears to have had no notable influence on the transformation of the southern Italian Church, although, as mentioned above, this process unfolded under papal guidance.

in Rethinking Norman Italy
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Urban strife and conflict management in early twelfth-century Benevento
Markus Krumm

Since the beginning of papal rule in Benevento in the mid-eleventh century, local conflicts within the urban community posed a challenge to the Pope’s authority. A good example of this is the bellum civile of 1114, which, despite being unusually well documented, has been little studied.

This chapter investigates the circumstances leading to the bellum civile, using the downfall of Archbishop Landulf II as a case study in the dynamics of conflict management in southern Italy. The main source for the event is Falco’s Chronicon Beneventanum, but Falco’s account has never been comprehensively examined, only retold and more often than not misunderstood. One reason for this is that Falco recounts the bellum civile in a nonlinear narrative. Another is that his depiction of the archbishop’s dealings is not neutral but instead paints a black-and-white picture intended to inculpate the archbishop in the escalation of violence. Despite this, Falco reports many details and offers clear insights into the conflict’s development, and a careful reading can help to shed light on the events.

The chapter concludes by arguing that the conflict leading to the ‘civil war’ in Benevento did not originate from poor relations between Pope Paschal II and Archbishop Landulf II, but rather in the context of local rivalry between papal constable Landulf of Greca and the Norman nobility.

in Rethinking Norman Italy