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The ball gets rolling
Marietta Meier
,
Mario König
, and
Magaly Tornay

The chapter introduces several important actors: the Münsterlingen Psychiatric Clinic, its location and institutional context, the patients, the clinic staff, and the governing authorities. Special attention is paid to Roland Kuhn; his wife Verena Kuhn (née Gebhart), who was also a psychiatrist; his superior, clinic director Adolf Zollinger; and the development of the Swiss pharmaceutical companies in the first half of the twentieth century. It closes with a look at Parpanit, a Geigy substance intended to alleviate movement disorders that came to Münsterlingen in 1946 and initiated the serial testing of substances. The drug also marked the beginning of the close collaboration between Kuhn and Geigy.

in On trial
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Testing frenzy with Geigy
Marietta Meier
,
Mario König
, and
Magaly Tornay

The chapter deals with the beginnings of psychopharmaceutical research in Münsterlingen in the 1950s. It recounts how the first neuroleptic (antipsychotic drug) arrived at the psychiatric hospital and rewrites the well-known ‘history of discovery’ of imipramine, the first antidepressant. Using new sources, it shows how the development of the drug became a struggle for rank and intellectual authorship. The first Geigy substances were met with great enthusiasm in Münsterlingen. However, when the serial testing of a second generation of Geigy preparations failed, scepticism emerged.

in On trial
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A flood of substances and new dimensions of testing
Marietta Meier
,
Mario König
, and
Magaly Tornay

The chapter deals with the 1960s, a period of extensive experimentation with numerous test substances that immediately followed the ‘discoveries’ of the 1950s and was marked by the search in Münsterlingen for a better, more specific antidepressant. While the methods of clinical trials were still exploratory and uncontrolled in the 1950s, regulations for drug approval and risk and side-effect management were introduced around 1962. Clinical trials were standardised and oriented towards statistical, quantitative evaluation. The impetus for this change came not only from the authorities but also from the pharmaceutical industry. For Kuhn, this development had an ambivalent effect. He was still a sought-after investigator. At the same time, there were growing signs that he was not keeping pace with the increasing standardisation and regulation of clinical research.

in On trial
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Between doldrums and success
Marietta Meier
,
Mario König
, and
Magaly Tornay

The chapter is devoted to the 1970s, a period of economic and social upheaval that also brought about major changes in the pharmaceutical industry, increased regulation of pharmaceuticals, and definitive changes in clinical trials. Working now as the director of the clinic, Kuhn had new responsibilities and faced problems both inside and outside the clinic. Nevertheless, the Münsterlingen trials did not come to an end under these changed circumstances but continued in a new form.

in On trial
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A long, restless finale
Marietta Meier
,
Mario König
, and
Magaly Tornay

Beginning with Kuhn’s retirement in 1980, which also marked his transition to private practice, the chapter deals with Kuhn’s last trial, his plans and activities as a pensioner, and the scandal surrounding another doctor in Thurgau who had administered investigational drugs to residents of a retirement nursing home. Histories of psychotropic drug development started being written in 1990, and Kuhn made every effort to be recognised for his ‘discovery’. At the same time, the onset of historicisation prompted him to return to the many papers he had accumulated over the course of his professional life.

in On trial
British women writers and refugees
Katherine Cooper

Virginia Woolf wrote in Three Guineas in 1938 that ‘[a]s a woman, I have no country. As a woman I want no country. As a woman my country is the whole world.’ Her words acknowledge the long-held feminist contention that the very conceptions of citizenship and patriotism are indelibly tied to the patriarchal and the male, placing women beyond and outside these structures, particularly during wartime. This chapter investigates how this placing or understanding of woman as beyond the nation might be seen to underpin the interactions between women and the legally and politically stateless: refugees. It reads the real-life and fictional interactions between mid-century British women writers from all sides of the political spectrum, from Storm Jameson to Vera Brittain, Phyllis Bottome to Iris Murdoch, alongside later feminist theory of nationhood and citizenship, to argue that these women enjoyed a different relationship with the wartime nation which allowed them to engage more empathetically with refugee subjects. It brings this into dialogue with Kantian and Derridean understandings of hospitality and Cooper’s own previous work on this topic to interrogate the essentialist dynamics underpinning the gendering of hospitality within the nation-state and the ways in which the caring/political activities of these women might be seen both to challenge and enforce these age-old customs.

in Mid-century women's writing
Aled Davies
,
James Freeman
, and
Hugh Pemberton

In its second term, the Thatcher government hoped to solve the 'early leaver problem' in collective occupational pensions by effectively replacing this part of the United Kingdom’s ‘second tier’ of pension arrangements with individualised personal pensions. As policy developed, though, this idea was expanded to embrace total reform of the ‘second tier’ through the outright abolition of the State Earnings-Related Pension Scheme (SERPS). In doing so, the government intended a dramatic break with the consensus reached only during the late 1970s. This chapter explores the roots of the plan to abolish SERPS, in the process tracing its two principal motivations: the desire to contain unfunded state spending on pensioners, a fear deepened by a growing awareness that SERPS could be a 'demographic time bomb', timed to detonate in the early decades of the twenty-first century; and the hope that, through privatisation, its former members would be imbued with the 'vigorous virtues' of thrift and entrepreneurialism. The chapter examines how this proposal became government policy in the 1985 Green Paper on the reform of social security, even though it was opposed by the great majority of those giving evidence to Norman Fowler's Inquiry into Provision for Retirement (IPR). In doing so, it highlights the pivotal role of the No. 10 Policy Unit and John Redwood in persuading Margaret Thatcher to back those pushing for radical neoliberal reform.

in A neoliberal revolution?
SASB and Integrated Reporting
Claire Parfitt

This chapter employs a critical reading of the Integrated Reporting framework and the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) standards, methodology and guidance documents. The analysis explores how key concepts like materiality, value, capital, accountability and risk are deployed in these frameworks, to understand the function this form of reporting plays in the speculative moral economy. Guided by historical accounting research and recalling the propositions developed in chapters one and two of the book, this chapter develops an understanding of how ethics are rationalised and made ready for commodification.

in False profits of ethical capital
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Making performance in the eye of history
Adrian Kear

In seeking to articulate performance’s political contribution to cultures of the Left, Walter Benjamin foregrounded the theatre’s capacity to ‘expose what is present’ and thereby to historicise the contemporary. For Benjamin, the political task of performance is not to ‘reproduce’ the situation but rather to ‘discover’ it – to allow its historicity to be seen. Benjamin notes that the actor plays a crucial role in this process, adopting a position in relation to the action that allows the spectator to construct their own. This means that the actor’s work and training ‘consists in acting in such a way’ that they are ‘orientated towards’ the production of new knowledge. As Georges Didi-Huberman puts it, ‘in order to know we must take a position’; ‘in order to know, we must know how to see’ (2018: 3, 24). This chapter explores the actor’s methodological responsibility for taking a position/adopting a stance on the world they inhabit. It explores the continuing significance of acting politically in the eye of contemporary history through examining Anna Deavere Smith’s virtuoso solo verbatim performance Notes from the Field (2018), which explores the racist social formation drawn attention to by the Black Lives Matter social movement from the perspective of people who have lived/are living through it. In performing their words, Deavere Smith takes a position alongside them, allying her acting to their actions, and thereby taking a political stance on the material co-produced with them. The work demonstrates the continued potentiality of Brechtian Haltung as a contemporary aesthetic-political methodology.

in Theatre, activism, subjectivity
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Jennifer Richards

How did an influential writer from the age of Shakespeare – a collaborator with Shakespeare no less – become so unpopular in the present age? Through addressing Nashe’s grounding in rhetoric in the sixteenth-century schoolroom, his use of punctuation, his relationship with his peers. and his influence on later writers, Jennifer Richards examines the paradox of Nashe’s status both as one of the most influential Elizabethan writers and as a minor Elizabethan writer.

in Thomas Nashe and literary performance