By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.
Co-operative College, Manchester
Co-operative Wholesale Society Limited, Annuals
Blythe, Ernest, ‘National Land Bank’, Dáil Eireann Debates, Volume 16.21, 20 July 1926, http://oireachtasdebates.oireachtas.ie/debates%20authoring/debateswebpack.nsf/takes/dail1926072000039?opendocument
Dáil Éireann, ‘Democratic Programme of Dáil Éireann’, Parliamentary Debates, Volume 1, 21 January 1919, http://oireachtasdebates.oireachtas.ie/debates%20authoring/debateswebpack.nsf/takes/dail1919012100016l
Dublin Diocesan Archive
Archbishop William Walsh Papers
Galway Diocesan Archive
Bishop MacCormack Papers, Notebook
House of Commons Debates 28 November 1906 vol. 166 cc65–67, http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1906/nov/28/subsidies-to-the-irish-agricultural
House of Commons Parliamentary Papers
HCPP [Cd. 1749], Committee on Butter Regulations, Final Report (1903).
HCPP [Cd. 3572], DATI Report of the Departmental Committee of Inquiry (1907).
HCPP [Cd. 3574], DATI Minutes of Evidence Taken Before the Departmental Committee of Inquiry (1907).
HCPP [Cd. 5092], Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland. Report of the Departmental Committee on the Irish Butter Industry (1910).
HCPP [Cd. 6735], Copy of Treasury Letter, dated 1st April 1913, respecting the conditions on which a Grant will be made to the Society, from the Development Fund, Vice-Regal Commission on the Irish Milk Supply (1913).
HCPP [Cd. 7375], Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland. Report of the Departmental Committee on Agricultural Credit in Ireland (1914).
HCPP [Cd. 8016], Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland. Report of the Departmental Committee on Food Production in Ireland (1914–16).
HCPP [Cmd. 808], Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, Report of the Departmental Committee on the Decline of Dairying in Ireland (1920).
Irish Military Archives
Bessie Cahill Witness Statement, 1143
Thomas McEllistrim Witness Statement, 0882
Kerry Local History Archive, Kerry County Library, Tralee
Dr John O’Connell Legal Papers
Listowel Rural District Council Minute Book
‘McEllistrim v Ballymacelligott Co-operative Agricultural and Dairy Society Limited [1918–19] All E R Rep Ext 1294’, in Lexis Library, www.lexisnexis.com/uk/legal/results/enhdocview.do?docLinkInd=true&ersKey=23_T18046105861&format=GNBFULL&startDocNo=0&resultsUrlKey=0_T18046105862&backKey=20_T18046105863&csi=279847&docNo=1&scrollToPosition=0
Limerick Diocesan Archive
BI/ET/K, Bishop Edward O’Dwyer Papers
National Archives of Ireland
1088/2, Abbeydorney Co-operative Dairy Society Ltd., General Correspondence Files
1088/70, Ballymacelligott Co-operative A&D Society, General Correspondence Files
1088/751, Newtownsandes Co-operative Society, General Correspondence Files
1088/752, Newtownsandes Co-operative Credit Society, General Correspondence Files
1088/798, Rathmore Co-operative Society, General Correspondence Files
1088/800, Rattoo Co-operative Society, General Correspondence Files
AGF/92/2/1573, Creamery Managers
AGF/92/3/570, Conference with Dairy Produce Inspectors, 29 September–2 October 1925
AGF/92/3/655, Dairy Disposal Company Ltd; Re Inspection and Registration of Tubrid Creamery, Ardfert, County Kerry, under Dairy Produce Act 1924
AGF/92/3/879, Riddall and Norman Correspondence to Department of Agriculture, re. Agricultural Credit
AGF/2005/68, Agricultural Commission, 1922–24, Report and Evidence
AGF/2005/68/6, Evidence of R.A. Anderson to the Agricultural Commission
AGF/2005/68/35, Evidence of W.P. Clifford to the Agricultural Commission
AGF/2005/68/95, Evidence of D. Hegarty, Secretary of the Irish Creamery Managers’ Association, to the Agricultural Commission
AGF/2005/68/164, Evidence of H.F. Norman to the Agricultural Commission
AGF/2005/68/401, Report of the Agricultural Commission (Majority and Minority Reports)
AGF/2005/82/1495, Proposed re-organisation scheme of IAOS, 1924–28
AGF/2005/82/1497, Confidential Report, Reorganisation of the IAOS
BR/ROS/12, Ballaghderreen Co-operative Agricultural and Dairy Society Papers
FIN/1/3086, Development Fund: as to payment of instalment of grants due to the Irish Agricultural Organisation Society, March 1922–April 1924
RFS/SA/374/A, Valentia Island Agricultural Bank, Kerry
RFS/SA/403/B, Newtownsandes Credit Society
National Library of Ireland
DATI, Second Annual General Report of the Department, 1901–02 (Dublin: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1902).
DATI, Seventh Annual Report of the Department, 1906–07 (Dublin: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1908).
DATI, Eighth Annual Report of the Department, 1907–08 (Dublin: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1908).
DATI, Eighteenth Annual General Report of the Department, 1917–18 (Dublin: His Majesty's Stationery Office 1919).
Horace Plunkett Papers, Correspondence.
Horace Plunkett Papers, Diaries.
IAC, Report of the Committee to the Members for the Year ended December 31st, 1928 (Dublin: Browne and Nolan, n.d.).
IAOS, Annual Reports.
ITGWU, Return to Registrar of Friendly Societies 1917–25, Ms. 27,034.
The National Land Bank: Its Constitution and its Aims (c. 1921).
The Society of the United Irishwomen, Annual Report, 1912 (Wexford: The People, 1913).
Evening Independent [St Petersburg, Florida]
New York Times
Weekly Irish Times
Public Record Office of Northern Ireland
D4131/M/11A, Josslyn Gore-Booth Papers, Drumcliffe Co-operative Dairy Society and Related Papers.
D4131/M/11B, Josslyn Gore-Booth Collection, Drumcliffe Co-operative Dairy Society and Related Papers.
D/4131/M/14, Josslyn Gore-Booth Collection, IAOS Papers.
D/4131/M/15, Josslyn Gore-Booth Collection, IAOS Papers.
FIN/18/2/332, Ministry of Agriculture Grant to the Ulster Agricultural Organisation Society.
Published primary material
Anderson, R.A., ‘Agricultural Co-operation in Ireland’, in Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction, ed., Ireland: Industrial and Agricultural (Dublin: Brown and Nolan, Limited, 1902), 218–234.
Commission of Inquiry into the Resources and Industries of Ireland, Report on Dairying and the Dairy Industry, March, 1922 (Dublin: Commission of Inquiry into the Resources and Industries of Ireland, 1922).
Department of Agriculture of Saorstát Éireann, Saorstát Éireann, Agriculture: A Note on Some Outstanding Features of the Irish Free State's Agricultural Resources (Dublin: Department of Agriculture, Saorstát Éireann, 1928).
Lloyd, Henry Demarest, Labor Copartnership: Notes of a Visit to Co-operative Workshops, Factories and Farms in Great Britain and Ireland, in which Employer, Employé, and Consumer Share in Ownership, Management, and Results (London: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1898).
Pilkington, Ellice, ‘United Irishwomen – Their Work’, in Horace Plunkett, Ellice Pilkington and George Russell (eds), The United Irishwomen: Their Place, Work and Ideals (Dublin: Maunsel and Co., 1911), 19–35.
Plunkett, Horace, ‘The Aims of the Co-operative Movement (1894)’, in Declan Kiberd and P.J. Mathews (eds), Handbook of the Irish Revival: An Anthology of Irish Cultural and Political Writings 1891–1922 (Dublin: Abbey Theatre Press, 2015), 90.
Rerum Novarum: Encyclical of Pope Leo XIII on Capital and Labour, http://w2.vatican.va/content/leo-xiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_l-xiii_enc_15051891_rerum-novarum.html
Saorstát Éireann, ‘Creamery Act, 1928’, Irish Statute Book, 26 (1928), www.irishstatutebook.ie/1928/en/act/pub/0026/print.html.
Saorstát Éireann, ‘Dairy Produce Act, 1924’, Irish Statute Book, 58 (1924), www.irishstatutebook.ie/1924/en/act/pub/0058/print.html.
Corcoran, Donal, ‘Public Policy in an Emerging State: The Irish Free State, 1922–25’, Irish Journal of Public Policy, 1 (2009), http://publish.ucc.ie/ijpp/2009/01/corcoran/05/en.
Hannan, Damian F., and Patrick Commins, ‘The Significance of Small-Scale Landholders in Ireland's Socio-Economic Transformation’, in The Development of Industrial Society in Ireland, ed. by J.H. Goldthorpe and C.T. Whelan (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992) ), 79–104.
Henriksen, Ingrid, Eoin McLaughlin and Paul Sharp, ‘Contracts and Co-operation: the Relative Failure of the Irish Dairy Industry in the Late Nineteenth Century Reconsidered’, European Review of Economic History, 19.4 (2015), 412–431.
Henry, Maurice, Pat Bolger and Trevor West (eds), Irish Co-operative Organisation Society: Fruits of a Century: An Illustrated Centenary History, 1894–1999 (Dublin: Irish Co-operative Organisation Society, 1994).
Hilson, Mary, Pirjo Markkola and Ann-Catrin Ostman (eds), Co-operatives and the Social Question: The Co-operative Movement in Northern and Eastern Europe (1880–1950) (Cardiff: Welsh Academic Press, 2012).
Jenkins, William, ‘Capitalists and Co-operators: Agricultural Transformation, Contested Space, and Identity Politics in South Tipperary, Ireland, 1890–1914’, Journal of Historical Geography, 30 (2004), 87–111.
Kennedy, Liam, ‘Farmers, Traders and Agricultural Politics in Pre-Independence Ireland’, in Samuel Clark and James S. Donnelly, Jr (eds), Irish Peasants: Violence and Political Unrest, 1780–1914 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1983), 339–373.
King, Carla, ‘The Early Development of Agricultural Cooperation: Some French and Irish Comparisons’, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy: Archaeology, Culture, History, Literature, 96C.3 (1996), 67–86.
Maume, Patrick, ‘Hannay, James Owen (“George A Birmingham”)’, in Dictionary of Irish Biography: From Earliest Times to the Year 2002, Volume 4, ed. by James McGuire and James Quinn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).
Murphy, William, ‘Figgis, Darrell’, in Dictionary of Irish Biography: From Earliest Times to the Year 2002, Volume 3, ed. by James McGuire and James Quinn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009) ), 775–777.
Peillon, Michel, ‘Interest Groups and the State in the Republic of Ireland’, Irish Society: Sociological Perspectives, ed. by Patrick Clancy, Sheelagh Drudy, Kathleen Lynch and Liam O’Dowd (Dublin: Institute of Public Administration, 1995), 358–378.
Pope, Conor, ‘Credit Unions Call for Credit Bank Showdown to be Held in Public’, Irish Times, 14 October 2013, www.irishtimes.com/business/credit-unions-call-for-central-bank-showdown-to-be-held-in-public-1.1558098.
Regan, John M., and Mike Cronin, ‘Introduction: Ireland and the Politics of Independence, 1922–49: New Perspectives and Re-considerations’, in Ireland: The Politics of Independence, 1922–49, ed. by Mike Cronin and John M. Regan (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000), 1–12.
UN Secretary-General, Co-operatives in Social Development (2015), http://undocs.org/A/70/161
Webster, Anthony, ‘Co-operatives and the State in Burma/Myanmar, 1900–2012: A Case-Study of Failed Top-Down Co-operative Development Models?’ in Rajeswary Ampalavanar Brown and Justin Pierce (eds), Charities in the Non-Western World: The Development and Regulation of Indigenous and Islamic Charities (New York: Routledge, 2013), 65–87.
Webster, Anthony, Alyson Brown, David Stewart, John K. Walton and Linda Shaw (eds), The Hidden Alternative: Co-operative Values, Past, Present and Future (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2011).
West, Trevor, ‘Gallagher, Patrick’, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/65846?docPos=2.