Patrick Doyle
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Primary sources

Co-operative College, Manchester

Co-operative News

Co-operative Wholesale Society Limited, Annuals

Dáil Debates

Blythe, Ernest, ‘National Land Bank’, Dáil Eireann Debates, Volume 16.21, 20 July 1926,

Dáil Éireann, ‘Democratic Programme of Dáil Éireann’, Parliamentary Debates, Volume 1, 21 January 1919,

Dublin Diocesan Archive

Archbishop William Walsh Papers

Galway Diocesan Archive

Bishop MacCormack Papers, Notebook

Hansard Debates

House of Commons Debates 28 November 1906 vol. 166 cc65–67,

House of Commons Parliamentary Papers

HCPP [Cd. 1749], Committee on Butter Regulations, Final Report (1903).

HCPP [Cd. 3572], DATI Report of the Departmental Committee of Inquiry (1907).

HCPP [Cd. 3574], DATI Minutes of Evidence Taken Before the Departmental Committee of Inquiry (1907).

HCPP [Cd. 5092], Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland. Report of the Departmental Committee on the Irish Butter Industry (1910).

HCPP [Cd. 5093], Departmental Committee on the Irish Butter Industry. Minutes of Evidence, Appendices and Index (1910).

HCPP [Cd. 6735], Copy of Treasury Letter, dated 1st April 1913, respecting the conditions on which a Grant will be made to the Society, from the Development Fund, Vice-Regal Commission on the Irish Milk Supply (1913).

HCPP [Cd. 7375], Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland. Report of the Departmental Committee on Agricultural Credit in Ireland (1914).

HCPP [Cd. 8016], Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland. Report of the Departmental Committee on Food Production in Ireland (1914–16).

HCPP [Cmd. 808], Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland, Report of the Departmental Committee on the Decline of Dairying in Ireland (1920).

Irish Military Archives

Bessie Cahill Witness Statement, 1143

Thomas McEllistrim Witness Statement, 0882

Kerry Local History Archive, Kerry County Library, Tralee

Dr John O’Connell Legal Papers

Listowel Rural District Council Minute Book

Lexis Library

McEllistrim v Ballymacelligott Co-operative Agricultural and Dairy Society Limited [1918–19] All E R Rep Ext 1294’, in Lexis Library,

Limerick Diocesan Archive

BI/ET/K, Bishop Edward O’Dwyer Papers

National Archives of Ireland

1088/2, Abbeydorney Co-operative Dairy Society Ltd., General Correspondence Files

1088/70, Ballymacelligott Co-operative A&D Society, General Correspondence Files

1088/751, Newtownsandes Co-operative Society, General Correspondence Files

1088/752, Newtownsandes Co-operative Credit Society, General Correspondence Files

1088/798, Rathmore Co-operative Society, General Correspondence Files

1088/800, Rattoo Co-operative Society, General Correspondence Files

AGF/92/2/1573, Creamery Managers

AGF/92/3/570, Conference with Dairy Produce Inspectors, 29 September–2 October 1925

AGF/92/3/655, Dairy Disposal Company Ltd; Re Inspection and Registration of Tubrid Creamery, Ardfert, County Kerry, under Dairy Produce Act 1924

AGF/92/3/879, Riddall and Norman Correspondence to Department of Agriculture, re. Agricultural Credit

AGF/2005/68, Agricultural Commission, 1922–24, Report and Evidence

AGF/2005/68/6, Evidence of R.A. Anderson to the Agricultural Commission

AGF/2005/68/35, Evidence of W.P. Clifford to the Agricultural Commission

AGF/2005/68/80, Evidence of T.P. Gill to the Commission on Agriculture

AGF/2005/68/95, Evidence of D. Hegarty, Secretary of the Irish Creamery Managers’ Association, to the Agricultural Commission

AGF/2005/68/164, Evidence of H.F. Norman to the Agricultural Commission

AGF/2005/68/401, Report of the Agricultural Commission (Majority and Minority Reports)

AGF/2005/82/1495, Proposed re-organisation scheme of IAOS, 1924–28

AGF/2005/82/1497, Confidential Report, Reorganisation of the IAOS

BR/ROS/12, Ballaghderreen Co-operative Agricultural and Dairy Society Papers

FIN/1/3086, Development Fund: as to payment of instalment of grants due to the Irish Agricultural Organisation Society, March 1922–April 1924

RFS/SA/374/A, Valentia Island Agricultural Bank, Kerry

RFS/SA/403/B, Newtownsandes Credit Society

National Library of Ireland

DATI, Second Annual General Report of the Department, 1901–02 (Dublin: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1902).

DATI, Seventh Annual Report of the Department, 1906–07 (Dublin: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1908).

DATI, Eighth Annual Report of the Department, 1907–08 (Dublin: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1908).

DATI, Eighteenth Annual General Report of the Department, 1917–18 (Dublin: His Majesty's Stationery Office 1919).

Horace Plunkett Papers, Correspondence.

Horace Plunkett Papers, Diaries.

IAC, Report of the Committee to the Members for the Year ended December 31st, 1928 (Dublin: Browne and Nolan, n.d.).

IAOS, Annual Reports.

ITGWU, Return to Registrar of Friendly Societies 1917–25, Ms. 27,034.

The National Land Bank: Its Constitution and its Aims (c. 1921).

The Society of the United Irishwomen, Annual Report, 1912 (Wexford: The People, 1913).



Evening Independent [St Petersburg, Florida]

Freeman's Journal

IAC Bulletin

Irish Economist

Irish Homestead

Irish Times

Kerry Sentinel

The Kerryman

Manchester Guardian

New York Times

The Observer

Skibbereen Eagle

Sligo Independent

Southern Star

The Times

Weekly Irish Times

Workers’ Republic

Public Record Office of Northern Ireland

D4131/M/11A, Josslyn Gore-Booth Papers, Drumcliffe Co-operative Dairy Society and Related Papers.

D4131/M/11B, Josslyn Gore-Booth Collection, Drumcliffe Co-operative Dairy Society and Related Papers.

D/4131/M/14, Josslyn Gore-Booth Collection, IAOS Papers.

D/4131/M/15, Josslyn Gore-Booth Collection, IAOS Papers.

FIN/18/2/332, Ministry of Agriculture Grant to the Ulster Agricultural Organisation Society.

Published primary material

Æ, A Plea for Justice: Being a Demand for a Public Enquiry into the Attacks Upon the Co-operative Societies in Ireland (Dublin: Irish Homestead, 1920).

Æ [George William Russell], The National Being: Some Thoughts on an Irish Polity (Dublin: Maunsel and Co., 1916).

American Commission to Investigate Agricultural Credit and Cooperation, Agricultural Cooperation and Rural Credit in Europe (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1913).

Anderson, R.A., ‘Agricultural Co-operation in Ireland’, in Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction, ed., Ireland: Industrial and Agricultural (Dublin: Brown and Nolan, Limited, 1902), 218–234.

Anderson, R.A., ‘The IAOS and the Food Problem’, Studies, 6.21 (1917), 8–14.

Anderson, R.A., With Horace Plunkett in Ireland (London: Macmillan and Co., 1935).

Birmingham, George A, ‘Politics in the Nude’, Irish Review, 1.10 (1911), 469–476.

Campbell, J.R., ‘The War and Irish Agriculture’, Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction Journal, 15.1 (1914), 10–19.

Commission of Inquiry into the Resources and Industries of Ireland, Report on Dairying and the Dairy Industry, March, 1922 (Dublin: Commission of Inquiry into the Resources and Industries of Ireland, 1922).

Coyne, William P., ‘Preface’, in Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction, ed., Ireland: Industrial and Agricultural (Dublin: Brown and Nolan, Limited, 1902).

DATI, Conference on the Poultry Industry, Dublin, May, 1911: Report of Proceedings (London: HMSO, 1911).

de Blacam, Aodh, Towards the Republic: A Study of New Ireland's Social and Political Aims (Dublin: T. Kiersey, 1918).

de Blacam, Aodh, What Sinn Féin Stands For: The Irish Republican Movement: Its History, Aims and Ideals Examined as the Their Significance to the World (Dublin: Mellifont Press Limited, 1921).

Department of Agriculture of Saorstát Éireann, Saorstát Éireann, Agriculture: A Note on Some Outstanding Features of the Irish Free State's Agricultural Resources (Dublin: Department of Agriculture, Saorstát Éireann, 1928).

Editor, ‘[Untitled Introduction]’, The Irish Review, 1.1 (1911), 1–6.

Figgis, Darrell, The Economic Case for Independence (Dublin: Maunsel and Co., 1920).

Figgis, Darrell, The Gaelic State in the Past and Future or ‘The Crown of the Nation’ (Dublin: Maunsel & Co. Ltd, 1917).

Figgis, Darrell, George W. Russell: A Study of a Man and a Nation (New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1916).

Finlay, T.A., ‘Agricultural Co-operation in Ireland’, Economic Journal, 6.22 (1896), 204–211.

Gallagher, Patrick (Paddy the Cope), My Story, revised edn (Dungloe: Templecrone Co-operative Society, n.d.).

Gebhard, Hannes, Co-operation in Finland (London: Williams and Norgate, 1916).

Gill, T.P., ‘Address to the Council of Agriculture’, Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction Journal, 20.1 (1919), 12–19.

Houston, D., The Milk Supply of Dublin: Report of a Bacteriological Investigation of the City of Dublin Milk Supply (Dublin: The Co-operative Reference Library, 1918).

IAOS, Home Rule in the Dairy (Dublin: Irish Agricultural Organisation Society, 1903).

Labour Party [Great Britain], Report of the Labour Commission to Ireland (London: Caledonian Press, 1921).

Lloyd, Henry Demarest, Labor Copartnership: Notes of a Visit to Co-operative Workshops, Factories and Farms in Great Britain and Ireland, in which Employer, Employé, and Consumer Share in Ownership, Management, and Results (London: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1898).

Moore, George, Hail and Farewell! Ave, Salve, Vale (Gerrards Cross, Bucks.: Colin Smythe Limited, 1985 [1911]).

O’Brien, Cruise, Co-operative Mills and Bakeries, Series: Miscellaneous Publications No. 2 (Dublin: Co-operative Reference Library, 1918).

O’Flanagan, Rev. M., Co-operation (Dublin: Cumann Léigheacht an Phobail, 1922).

Paul-Dubois, L, Contemporary Ireland (Dublin: Maunsel and Co., 1908).

Pilkington, Ellice, ‘United Irishwomen – Their Work’, in Horace Plunkett, Ellice Pilkington and George Russell (eds), The United Irishwomen: Their Place, Work and Ideals (Dublin: Maunsel and Co., 1911), 19–35.

Plunkett, Horace, ‘The Aims of the Co-operative Movement (1894)’, in Declan Kiberd and P.J. Mathews (eds), Handbook of the Irish Revival: An Anthology of Irish Cultural and Political Writings 1891–1922 (Dublin: Abbey Theatre Press, 2015), 90.

Plunkett, Horace Curzon, Co-operative Dairying: an Address to the Farmers of the Dairy Districts of Ireland (Manchester: Co-operative Union Limited, 1890).

Plunkett, Horace Curzon, ‘Co-operative Stores for Ireland’, Nineteenth Century, 24.139 (1888), 410–418.

Plunkett, Horace, A Country Life Institute: A Suggested Irish-American Contribution to Rural Progress (Dublin: Plunkett House, 1909).

Plunkett, Horace, The Crisis in Irish Rural Progress: Being Three Letters Reprinted from The Times (London: John Parkinson Bland, 1912).

Plunkett, Horace, Ireland in the New Century: with an Epilogue in Answer to Some Critics (London: John Murray, 1905).

Plunkett, Horace, Noblesse Oblige: An Irish Rendering (Dublin: Maunsel and Co., 1908).

Plunkett, Horace, ‘The Recess Committee and Remedial Legislation for Ireland’, The Economic Journal, 7.25 (1897), 131–136.

Plunkett, Horace, ‘The Relations between Organized Self Help and State Aid in Ireland’, The North American Review, 67.503 (1898), 497–498.

Plunkett, Horace, ‘Rural Regeneration’, North American Review, 214.791 (1921), 470–476.

Plunkett, Horace, The Trend of Co-operation in Great Britain and Ireland (Dublin; n.p., 1902).

Rashad, Ibrahim, An Egyptian in Ireland (n.a.: privately printed by the author, 1920).

Russell, George (Æ), ‘The Self-Supporting Community’, Studies, 7.26 (1918), 301–306.

Russell, George William, The National Being: Some Thoughts on an Irish Polity (Dublin: Maunsel and Co., 1916).

Russell, George W., ‘The Problem of Rural Life’, Irish Review 1.8 (1911), 365–372.

Russell, Ruth, What's the Matter with Ireland? (New York: Devin-Adair Co., 1920).

Shemus, ‘Tales of a Kerry Creamery’, in H.F. Norman (ed.), A Celtic Christmas: The Irish Homestead Christmas Number (Dublin: Irish Agricultural Organisation Society, 1898), 17–18.

Sinn Féin, [Letter to Various Cumanns on Prospects of Co-operative Societies in Ireland] (Dublin: Sinn Féin, 1919).

Smith-Gordon, Lionel, ‘Agricultural Organisation in Ireland, The Economic Journal, 27.107 (1917), 355–363.

Smith-Gordon, Lionel, The Irish Milk Supply (Dublin: Co-operative Reference Library, 1919).

Smith-Gordon, Lionel, The Place of Banking in the National Programme (Dublin: Cumann Léigheacht an Phobail, 1921).

Smith-Gordon, Lionel, and Cruise O’Brien, Co-operation in Denmark, Series: International Co-operative Series, vol. 4 (Manchester: Co-operative Union Limited, 1919).

Smith-Gordon, Lionel, and Cruise O’Brien, Co-operation in Ireland (Manchester: Co-operative Union Limited, 1921).

Smith-Gordon, Lionel, and Cruise O’Brien, Ireland's Food in War Time, Series: Miscellaneous Publications No. 1 (Dublin: Co-operative Reference Library, 1914).

Smith-Gordon, Lionel, and Laurence S. Staples, Rural Reconstruction in Ireland: A Record of Co-operative Organization (London: P.S. King and Son, 1917).

Ulster Imperialist, ‘An Appreciation of the Situation’, Irish Review, 2.13 (1912), 1–11.

Wolff, Henry W., People's Banks: A Record of Social and Economic Success (London: P.S. King and Son, 1910, 3rd edn [originally published 1893]).

Published online

Rerum Novarum: Encyclical of Pope Leo XIII on Capital and Labour,

Saorstát Éireann, ‘Creamery Act, 1928’, Irish Statute Book, 26 (1928),

Saorstát Éireann, ‘Dairy Produce Act, 1924’, Irish Statute Book, 58 (1924),

Secondary sources

Allen, Nicholas, George Russell (AE) and the New Ireland, 1905–1930 (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2003).

Allen, Nicholas, Modernism, Ireland and Civil War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).

Arensberg, Conrad M, The Irish Countryman, 2nd edn (Garden City, New York: The Natural History Press, 1968).

Arensberg, Conrad M., and Solon T Kimball, Family and Community in Ireland (Gloucester Massachusetts: Peter Smith, 1961).

Augusteijn, Joost (ed.), The Irish Revolution, 1913–1923 (Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2002).

Barnet, Margaret L., British Food Policy during the First World War (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1985).

Bell, Jonathan and Mervyn Watson, A History of Irish Farming, 1750–1950 (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2009).

Bew, Paul, Enigma: A New Life of Charles Stewart Parnell (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 2012).

Bew, Paul, Ideology and the Irish Question: Ulster Unionism and Irish Nationalism, 1912–1916 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994).

Birchall, Johnston, The International Co-operative Movement (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997).

Black, Lawrence, and Nicole Robertson (eds), Consumerism and the Co-operative Movement in Modern British History: Taking Stock (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009).

Bolger, Patrick, The Irish Co-operative Movement: Its History and Development (Dublin: Institute of Public Administration, 1977).

Bourke, Joanna, Husbandry to Housewifery: Women, Economic Change and Housework in Ireland, 1890–1914 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993).

Bradley, Dan, Farm Labourers: Irish Struggle, 1900–1976 (Belfast: Athol Books, 1988).

Brearton, Fran, The Great War in Irish Poetry: W.B. Yeats to Michael Longley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Breathnach, Ciara, The Congested Districts Board of Ireland, 1891–1923: Poverty and Development in the West of Ireland (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2005).

Bull, Philip, Land, Politics and Nationalism: A Study of the Irish Land Question (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1996).

Byrne, L.P., Twenty-One Years of the IAWS, 1897–1918 (Dublin: IAWS, 1919).

Campbell, Colm, Emergency Law in Ireland, 1918–1925 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994).

Campbell, Fergus, The Irish Establishment, 1879–1914 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).

Campbell, Fergus, Land and Revolution: Nationalist Politics in the West of Ireland, 1891–1921 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

Campbell, Fergus, and Kevin O’Shiel, ‘The Last Land War? Kevin O’Shiel's Memoir of the Irish Revolution (1916–1921)’, Archivium Hibernicum, 57 (2003), 155–200.

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Collins, Michael, The Path to Freedom (Dublin: Talbot Press, 1922).

Connolly, James, Labour in Ireland: Labour in Irish History; The Re-conquest of Ireland (Dublin: Maunsel & Roberts Ltd, 1922).

Coolahan, John, Irish Education: Its History and Structure (Dublin: Institute of Public Administration, 1981).

Corcoran, Donal, Freedom to Achieve Freedom: The Irish Free State, 1922–1932 (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 2013).

Corcoran, Donal, ‘Public Policy in an Emerging State: The Irish Free State, 1922–25’, Irish Journal of Public Policy, 1 (2009),

Craig, E.T., An Irish Commune: The History of Ralahine (Dublin: M. Lester, 1920).

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Daly, Mary E., Industrial Development and Irish National Identity, 192239 (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1992).

de Blacam, Aodh, ‘Æ as I Knew Him’, Irish Monthly, 63.747 (1935), 606–613.

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Doyle, Patrick Mary, ‘Reframing the “Irish Question”: the Role of the Co-operative Movement in the Formation of Irish Nationalism, 1900–1922’, Irish Studies Review, 22.3 (2014), 267–284.

Doyle, Tom, The Civil War in Kerry (Cork: Mercier Press, 2008).

Eichenberg, Julia, ‘The Dark Side of Independence: Paramilitary Violence in Ireland and Poland After the First World War’, Contemporary European History, 19.3 (2010), 231–248.

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Fanning, Ronan, The Irish Department of Finance, 1922–1958 (Dublin: Institute of Public Administration, 1978).

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Federico, Giovanni, Feeding the World: An Economic History of Agriculture, 1800–2000 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005).

Fennelly, Teddy, A Triumph Over Adversity: The History of Donaghmore Co-operative Creamery Ltd, Founded in 1927 (Portlaoise: Arderin Publishing Company, 2003).

Ferriter, Diarmaid, The Transformation of Ireland, 1900–2000 (London: Profile Books, 2004).

Fitzgerald, Garret, Reflections on the Irish State (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2003).

Fitzpatrick, David, Politics and Irish Life, 1913–1921: Provincial Experience of War and Revolution (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1977).

Fitzpatrick, David, The Two Irelands, 1912–1939 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Fitzpatrick, Edward A., McCarthy of Wisconsin (New York: Columbia University Press, 1944).

Fleming, G.A., ‘Agricultural Support Policies in a Small Open Economy: New Zealand in the 1920s’, Economic History Review, 52.2 (1999), 334–354.

Foster, Gavin, ‘In the Shadow of the Split: Writing the Irish Civil War’ Field Day Review, 2 (2006), 294–303.

Foster, R.F., Modern Ireland, 1600–1972 (London: Penguin: 1988).

Foster, R.F., W.B. Yeats: A Life, I: The Apprentice Mage, 1865–1914 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).

Foucault, Michel, The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978–1979 (Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010).

Freeman, T.W., Ireland: Its Physical, Historical, Social and Economic Geography (London: Methuen and Co., Ltd, 1950).

Gailey, Andrew, Ireland and the Death of Kindness: The Experience of Constructive Unionism 1890–1905 (Cork: Cork University Press, 1987).

Garvin, Tom, The Evolution of Irish Nationalist Politics (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1981).

Garvin, Tom, Nationalist Revolutionaries in Ireland, 1858–1928 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987).

Garvin, Tom, News from a New Republic: Ireland in the 1950s (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 2011).

Garvin, Tom, Preventing the Future: Why Was Ireland So Poor For So Long? (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 2004).

Gatrell, Peter, Russia's First World War: A Social and Economic History (Harlow: Pearson Longman, 2005).

Geertz, Clifford, The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays (New York: Basic Books, 1973).

Geoghegan, Vincent, ‘Robert Owen, Co-operation and Ulster in the 1830s’, in Politics and the Irish Working Class, 1830–1945 (Houndsmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), 6–26.

Gibbon, Peter, and MD Higgins, ‘Patronage, Tradition and Modernisation: The Case of the Irish “Gombeenman”’, Economic and Social Review, 6.1 (1974), 27–44.

Gide, Charles, with preface by Diarmid Coffey, Consumers’ Co-operative Societies (Manchester: The Co-operative Union Limited, 1921).

Gillmor, D.A., ‘Agriculture’, in D.A. Gillmor (ed.), Irish Resources and Land Use (Dublin: Institute of Public Administration, 1979), 109–136.

Gillmor, Desmond A., ‘Land and People, c.1926’, in J.R. Hill (ed.), A New History of Ireland, Volume VII: Ireland, 1921–84 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 62–85.

Girvin, Brian, ‘The Republicanisation of Irish Society, 1932–48’, in J.R. Hill (ed.), A New History of Ireland, Volume VII: Ireland 1921–1984 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 127–160.

Goswami, Manu, Producing India: From Colonial Economy to National Space (London: University of Chicago Press, 2004).

Gregory, Augusta, ‘Ireland, Real and Ideal’, Nineteenth Century 44.261 (1898), 769–782.

Griffith, Arthur, The Resurrection of Hungary: A Parallel for Ireland with Appendices on Pitt's Policy and Sinn Féin, 3rd edn (Dublin: Whelan and Son, 1918).

Guinnane, Timothy W, ‘A Failed Institutional Transplant: Raiffeisen's Credit Cooperatives in Ireland, 1894–1914’, Explorations in Economic History, 31 (1994), 38–61.

Guinnane, Timothy W, The Vanishing Irish: Households, Migration, and the Rural Economy in Ireland, 1850–1914 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997).

Gupta, Akhil, ‘Blurred Boundaries: The Discourse of Corruption, the Culture of Politics and the Imagined State’, American Ethnologist, 22.2 (1995), 375–402.

Gupta, Akhil, Postcolonial Developments: Agriculture in the Making of Modern India (London: Duke University Press, 1998).

Gurney, Peter, Co-operative Culture and the Politics of Consumption in England, 1870–1930 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996).

Gwynn, Denis, The Irish Free State, 1922–1927 (London: Macmillan and Co., 1928).

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Gwynn, Stephen, Ireland (London: Ernest Benn, 1924).

Hall, F., and W.P. Watkins, Co-operation: A Survey of the History, Principles, and Organisation of the Co-operative Movement in Great Britain and Ireland (Manchester: Co-operative Union, 1937).

Hanly, Joseph, ‘Agriculture’, in Bulmer Hobson (ed.), Saorstat Eireann: Official Handbook (Dublin: The Talbot Press, 1932), 115–127.

Hanly, Joseph, The National Ideal: A Practical Exposition of True Nationality Appertaining to Ireland (Dublin: Dollard Printinghouse, 1931).

Hannan, Damian F., and Patrick Commins, ‘The Significance of Small-Scale Landholders in Ireland's Socio-Economic Transformation’, in The Development of Industrial Society in Ireland, ed. by J.H. Goldthorpe and C.T. Whelan (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992) ), 79–104.

Harding, Keith, ‘The “Co-operative Commonwealth”: Ireland, Larkin and the Daily Herald’, in Stephen Yeo (ed.), New Views of Co-operation (London: Routledge, 1988), 88–107.

Harkness, D.W., The Restless Dominion: The Irish Free State and the British Commonwealth of Nations, 1921–1931 (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1969).

Hart, Peter, The IRA and its Enemies: Violence and Community in Cork, 1916–1923 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Hart, Peter, The IRA at War, 1916–1923 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).

Henriksen, Ingrid, ‘Avoiding Lock-In: Cooperative Creameries in Denmark, 1882–1903’, European Review of Economic History, 3 (1999), 57–78.

Henriksen, Ingrid, and Kevin H. O’Rourke, ‘Incentives, Technology and the Shift to Year-Round Dairying in Late Nineteenth Century Denmark’, Economic History Review, 58.3 (2005), 520–554.

Henriksen, Ingrid, Eoin McLaughlin and Paul Sharp, ‘Contracts and Co-operation: the Relative Failure of the Irish Dairy Industry in the Late Nineteenth Century Reconsidered’, European Review of Economic History, 19.4 (2015), 412–431.

Henriksen, Ingrid, Morten Hviid and Paul R. Sharp, ‘Law and Peace: Contracts and the Success of the Danish Dairy Cooperatives’, Journal of Economic History, 72.1 (2012), 197–224.

Henry, Maurice, Pat Bolger and Trevor West (eds), Irish Co-operative Organisation Society: Fruits of a Century: An Illustrated Centenary History, 1894–1999 (Dublin: Irish Co-operative Organisation Society, 1994).

Hilson, Mary, Pirjo Markkola and Ann-Catrin Ostman (eds), Co-operatives and the Social Question: The Co-operative Movement in Northern and Eastern Europe (1880–1950) (Cardiff: Welsh Academic Press, 2012).

Hobson. Bulmer, ‘Introduction’, in Hobson Bulmer (ed.), Saorstat Eireann: Official Handbook (Dublin: The Talbot Press, 1932), 15–16.

Hobson, Bulmer, ed., Saorstat Eireann: Official Handbook (Dublin: The Talbot Press, 1932).

Hopkinson, Michael, ‘Civil War and Aftermath, 1922–4’, in J.R. Hill (ed.), A New History of Ireland: 1921–1984 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 31–61.

Hopkinson, Michael, Green Against Green: The Irish Civil War (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1988).

Hoppen, K. Theodore, Governing Hibernia: British Politicians and Ireland 1800–1921 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016).

Horace Plunkett Foundation, Agricultural Co-operation: in its Application to the Industry, the Business, and the Life of the Farmer in the British Empire (London: George Routledge and Sons, 1925).

Hutchinson, John, The Dynamics of Cultural Nationalism: The Gaelic Revival and the Creation of the Irish Nation State (London: Allen & Unwin, 1987).

Jackson, Alvin, Home Rule: An Irish History, 1800–2000 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).

Jackson, Alvin, Ireland, 1798–1998: Politics and War (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1999).

Jenkins, William, ‘Capitalists and Co-operators: Agricultural Transformation, Contested Space, and Identity Politics in South Tipperary, Ireland, 1890–1914’, Journal of Historical Geography, 30 (2004), 87–111.

Johnston, Joseph, ‘Free Trade or Protection for Irish Industries?’ The Irish Economist, 8.1 (1923), 54–65.

Johnston, Joseph, The Nemesis of Economic Nationalism and Other Lectures in Applied Economics (London: P.S. King and Son, Ltd, 1934).

Johnston, Roy H.W., Century of Endeavour: A Biographical and Autobiographical View of the Twentieth Century in Ireland (Dublin: The Lilliput Press, 2006).

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Civilising rural Ireland

The co-operative movement, development and the nation-state, 1889–1939


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