By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.
Bodleian Library, Oxford. Papers of:
Lyndon B. Johnson Presidential Library, Austin, Texas (LBJL):
Meeting Notes File
National Security Files (NSF)
Oral history interview with David K. E. Bruce, conducted by Thomas H. Baker, 9 December 1971
Papers of Francis M. Bator
Papers of Gardner Ackley
Papers of George W. Ball
Papers of Willie Day Taylor
President’s Appointment File (Diary Backup)
Recordings of telephone conversations: White House Series
Statements of Lyndon B. Johnson
Tom Johnson’s Notes of Meetings
White House Central Files (WHCF) White House Press Office Files
John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Massachusetts (JFKL):
Oral history interview with Harold Wilson, conducted by Richard E. Neustadt, 23 March 1964
Public Record Office, London (PRO):
Cabinet Office (CAB 128, 129, 133)
Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO 7, 15)
Foreign Office (FO 371)
Prime Minister’s Office (PREM 13)
US National Archives and Record Administration, College Park, Maryland (State Department – RG 59) (NARA):
Subject-Numeric Files, 1963
Subject-Numeric Files, 1964–66
Subject-Numeric Files, 1967–69
Virginia State Historical Society, Richmond, Virginia (VHS):
The Diaries of David K. E. Bruce
Printed primary sources
Anglo-American Relations Since 1939: The Enduring Alliance (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997).,
Reaching for Glory: Lyndon Johnson’s Secret White House Tapes, 1964–1965 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001).,
Cmnd. 2756, Recent Exchanges Concerning Attempts to Promote a Negotiated Settlement of the Conflict in Vietnam (London: HMSO, 1965).
Cmnd. 2901, Statement on the Defence Estimates 1966, Part I, The Defence Review (London: HMSO, 1966), pp. 4–11.
Cmnd. 3357, Supplementary Statement on Defence Policy 1967 (London: HMSO, 1967).
Foreign Relations of the United States 1964–1968 series (Washington DC: USGPO).
Anglo-American Relations Since the Second World War (London: David & Charles, 1974).,
British Defence Policy Since 1945 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994).,
The Sunday Times
Memoirs and diaries
The Past Has Another Pattern: Memoirs (New York: Norton, 1982).,
Out of the Wilderness: Diaries, 1963–1967 (London: Hutchinson, 1987).,
Special Relationships: A Foreign Correspondent’s Memoirs from Roosevelt to Reagan (London: Macmillan, 1988).,
In My Way (London: Victor Gollancz, 1971).,
The Wilson Years: A Treasury Diary (London: Historians’ Press, 1997).,
Time and Chance (London: Collins, 1987).,
The Castle Diaries, 1964–1970 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984).,
The Diaries of a Cabinet Minister, vol. I, Minister of Housing, 1964–66 (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1975).,
——The Diaries of a Cabinet Minister, vol. II, Lord President of the Council and Leader of the House of Commons, 1966–68 (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1976).
The Time of My Life (London: Michael Joseph, 1989).,
The Vantage Point: Perspectives of the Presidency, 1963–1969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971).,
Journeying Far and Wide: A Political and Diplomatic Memoir (New York: Scribners, 1992).,
The Cecil King Diary 1965–1970 (London: Cape, 1972).,
Whip to Wilson: The Crucial Years of the Labour Government (London: Macdonald, 1989).,
George Wigg (London: Michael Joseph, 1972).,
Inside No. 10 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1972).,
The Labour Government, 1964–1970: A Personal Record (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1971).,
The Dirty War in Mr. Wilson: Or How He Learned to Stop Worrying About Vietnam and Learned to Love the Dollar (privately published, 1966).,
Labour’s Crisis: Its Nature, Cause and Consequence (privately published, 1966).,
Secondary sources: books
The Hidden Hand: Britain, America and Cold War Secret Intelligence (London: John Murray, 2001).,
Kennedy, Macmillan and the Cold War: The Irony of Interdependence (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2002).,
Diplomacy for a Crowded World (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1976).,
‘The Special Relationship’: A Political History of Anglo-American Relations Since 1945 (London: Longman, 1992).,
Anglo-American Defence Relations, 1939–1984 (London: Macmillan, 1984).,
The Wages of Globalism: Lyndon B. Johnson and the Limits of American Power (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995).,
Arms Without Empire: British Defence in the Modern World (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1967).,
The General Election of 1964 (London: Macmillan, 1964)., and Anthony King,
——The General Election of 1966 (London: Macmillan, 1966).
Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963–1968 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994)., and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds),
Big Daddy from the Pedernales: Lyndon Baines Johnson (Boston: Twayne, 1986).,
The Wilson Governments, 1964–1970 (London: Pinter 1993)., S. Fielding and N. Tiratsoo (eds),
Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1908–1960 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991).,
——Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961–1971 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).
On Specialness: Essays in Anglo-American Relations (London: Macmillan, 1997).,
‘Special’ No More: Anglo-American Relations, Rhetoric and Reality (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1994).,
An Ocean Apart: The Relationship Between Britain and American in the Twentieth Century (New York: Vintage, 1989)., and David Reynolds,
The Politics of the Anglo-American Economic Special Relationship (Brighton: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1988).,
——Anglo-American Relations in the Twentieth Century (London: Routledge, 1995).
British Defence Policy Since 1945 (London: Macmillan, 1988).,
Britain’s Retreat from East of Suez: The Choice Between Europe and the World? (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2002).,
Smear! Wilson and the Secret State (London: Grafton, 1991)., and Robin Ramsey,
The Making of US Foreign Policy (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990).,
——A Special Relationship: Anglo-American Relations in the Cold War and After (London: Macmillan, 2001).
Diplomacy at the Highest Level: The Evolution of International Summitry (London: Macmillan, 1996).,
The Summit Conferences 1919–1960 (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma, 1966).,
The Politics of Harold Wilson (London: Penguin, 1968).,
Lyndon B. Johnson and the World (London: Pall Mall, 1966).,
Lyndon B. Johnson and the American Dream (New York: Harper and Row, 1976).,
NATO and the Nuclear Revolution: A Crisis of Credibility (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996).,
The Troubled Partnership: A Reappraisal of the Atlantic Alliance (New York: McGraw Hill, 1965).,
The Last American Aristocrat: The Biography of David K. E. Bruce (New York: Little, Brown, 1996).,
The Special Relationship: Anglo-American Relations Since 1945 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986).,
Harold Wilson (London: Pluto, 1992).,
Callaghan: A Life (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).,
Kennedy, Macmillan and Nuclear Weapons (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000).,
President Kennedy and Britain (London: The Bodley Head, 1972).,
Anglo-American Relations in the Twentieth Century (London: Macmillan, 1998).,
Britain’s Withdrawal from East of Suez: The Politics of Retrenchment (London: Macmillan, 1998).,
Harold Wilson (London: Harper Collins, 1992).,
Diplomat-in-Chief: The President at the Summit (New York: Praeger, 1986).,
Breach of Promise: Labour in Power, 1964–1970 (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1989).,
Fighting With Allies: America and Britain in Peace and at War (New York: Times Books, 1996).,
Britannia Overruled: British Policy and World Power in the Twentieth Century (London: Longman, 1991).,
Can Parliament Decide … About Europe or About Anything? (London: Macdonald, 1971).,
——Harold Wilson: Yorkshire Walter Mitty (London: Macdonald, 1977).
Lyndon Johnson and Europe: In the Shadow of Vietnam (Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard, 2003).,
The First Hundred Days of Harold Wilson (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1965).,
The Cybernetic Theory of Decision (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1974).,
Official and Confidential: The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover (London: Corgi, 1994).,
Vietnam: The Truth (London: The Merlin Press, 1965).,
Succeeding John Bull: America in Britain’s Place (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984).,
Denis Healey and the Policies of Power (London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1971).,
Wilson: The Authorised Life of Lord Wilson of Rievaulx (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1993).,
Secondary sources: articles and papers
World Politics, 19 (October 1966), pp. 21–51., and Richard Rosecrance, ‘Theory and reality in the Anglo-American alliance’,
Journal of Strategic Studies, 23: 4 (December 2000), pp. 107–29., ‘Forging the Anglo-American global defence partnership: Harold Wilson, Lyndon Johnson and the Washington summit, December 1964’,
Journal of American Studies, 30 (1996), pp. 211–31., ‘The Johnson administration and the British Labour Government: Vietnam, the pound and East of Suez’,
Diplomatic History, 27: 1 (January, 2003), pp. 113–49., ‘British involvement in Vietnam peace initiatives, 1966– 1967: Marigolds, Sunflowers, and “Kosygin Week”’,
Diplomacy at the Highest Level: The Evolution of International Summitry (London: Macmillan, 1996), pp. 247–68., ‘How useful is summitry?’, in David H. Dunn (ed.),
——‘What is summitry?’, in David H. Dunn (ed.), Diplomacy at the Highest Level: The Evolution of International Summitry (London: Macmillan, 1996), pp. 3–22.
Twentieth Century Anglo-American Relations (London: Palgrave, 2001), pp. 180–204., ‘Lyndon B. Johnson, Harold Wilson and the Vietnam War: a not-so special relationship?’, in Jonathan Hollowell (ed.),
——‘“With us, but wobbly on negotiations”: America, Britain and the Vietnam War, 1964–1968’, paper given at the Society for the History of American Foreign Relations, American University, Washington DC, June 2001.
Diplomatic History, 23: 4 (Fall, 1999), pp. 633–56., ‘Coping with decline: US policy toward the British defence reviews of 1966’,
History Today, 42 (April 1992), pp. 45–51., ‘Lyndon Johnson’s dollar diplomacy’,
——‘“Somewhat mixed-up together”: Anglo-American defence and financial policy during the 1960s’, Journal of Commonwealth and Imperial History, 27: 2 (May 1999), pp. 213–32.
Lyndon Baines Johnson and the Uses of Power (New York: Greenwood Press, 1988), pp. 257–86., ‘Lyndon Johnson as diplomat-in-chief’, in Bernard J. Firestone and Robert C. Vogt (eds),
International Affairs, 62 (1986), pp. 1–20., ‘A “special relationship”? America, Britain and the international order since the Second World War’,
Cold War History, 2: 2 (January 2002), pp. 33–60., ‘The battle for Bretton Woods: America, Britain and the international financial crisis of October 1967–March 1968’,
International Relations, II (1963), pp. 493–504., ‘Summits and summitry reconsidered’,
, ‘The “courtesan’s customer”: the United States, Britain and the Rhodesian crisis’, unpublished paper, 2003.
The Diplomatist, 35: 4 (April 1979), pp. 30–2., ‘How a prime minister and an ambassador almost stopped the Vietnam War’,
The Wilson Governments, 1964–1970 (London: Pinter 1993), pp. 123–35., ‘Now you see it, now you don’t: Harold Wilson and Labour’s foreign policy, 1964–1970’, in R. Coopey, S. Fielding and N. Tiratsoo (eds),
Review of International Studies, 24 (1998), pp. 545–62., ‘The Wilson government and the Davies peace mission to North Vietnam’ (July 1965),
Secondary sources: dissertations
, ‘Anglo-American Relations and the Vietnam War, 1964–68’, PhD dissertation, University of Newcastle, 1999.
, ‘Two Among Many: Anglo-American Relations, Multilateralism and Naval Policy, 1962–68’, PhD dissertation, University of Birmingham, 2002.
, ‘The Battle of the Pound: The Political Economy of Anglo-American Relations, 1964–68’, PhD dissertation, London School of Economics, 2000.
, ‘Anglo-American Relations and the Vietnam War, 1964–67’, PhD dissertation, University of Wales Aberystwyth, 2000.