Ben J.S. Hoetjes
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The Netherlands
A former founding father in search of control

The involvement of the Dutch in European integration dates back to the 1950s, and so do the Dutch attitudes towards it. Over the years, they have changed, but there is also a long-standing support for the overall process of European integration. Since the Netherlands has a decentralised unitary system with a relatively weak intermediary, provincial level of government, the authors can distinguish between the national level on the one hand, and the 'lower levels' on the other. They then deal with political parties and interest groups and look for patterns of change since Maastricht. When analysing national involvement in European Union (EU) policies, one can distinguish between government and parliament. For both, there is the question of involvement in the preparation of EU policies, the actual making of decisions, their implementation and, finally, the control of implementation. In this last phase, an important role is also played by the judiciary.

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Fifteen into one?

The European Union and its member states


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