Linda Maynard
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Archival sources

Imperial War Museum, London

H. Allot, Letters and diary, 14/33/1.

A.C. Arnold, Letters and diary, 06/54/1.

E.A. Aylmer, Letters and diary, 80/48/1.

J.H. Brocklesby, Interview, 10122.

Papers relating to Rupert Brooke, Letters, 12456.

O. Burgess, Interview, 26871.

C. Bush and E. Spofforth, Interview, 516.

W.P. Campbell, Memoirs, 73/37/1.

W.C. Christopher, Letters, 88/11/1.

I. Clarke, Interview, 774.

G. Clayton, Interview, 10012.

F. Cocker, Letters, 82/11/1.

Collection of letters sent by four brothers, 1611.

F.S. Collings, Diary, 77/124/1.

G.E. Davies, Diary, 09/47/1.

M. Denys-Burton, Memoir, 92/22/1.

C. and E. Dodsworth, Diaries and memoir, 82/12/1.

M.R. Dooley, Interview, 712.

J.W. Dorgan, Interview, 9253.

J.O. Evans, Letters, 3280.

E.V.H. Fairtlough, Letters, 12610.

C.J. Falk, Letters, 06/74/1.

J. Fitzpatrick, Interview, 10676.

M.F. Foxell, Diary and letters, 11936.

W. Gamble, Letters, 08/67/1.

C.H.R. Gee, Interview, 13717.

S. Goodman, Letters, 97/26/1.

W. Gregory, Interview, 24545.

H. Hall, Interview, 26876.

F. Hammerton, Letters, 08/95/1.

J. Harley, Letters, 10/3/1.

E. Heaton, Letters, 03/29/1.

E.W. Hewish, Diary and letters, 02/43/1.

J.W. Hickson, Letters, 06/94/1.

R. Hill, Interview, 10770.

A.H. Hirst, Letters, 06/30/1.

F. Holding, Interview, 10922.

W.W. Holmes, Interview, 8868.

A. Hubbard, Letters, 22009.

F.L. Inglefield, Letters, 06/56/1.

T.N. James, Letters and memoir, 76/86/1.

J.A. Johnston, Memoir, 02/29/1.

E. Jones, Letters, 15429.

H.D. Keary, Letters, 2610.

W.T. King, Letters, 89/7/1.

H.B. Lawson, Letters, 08/37/1.

M. Lennon, Letters, 08/36/1.

Letter from a wounded soldier, 9738.

Letters from the Western Front, 11/226.

F. Lindley, Interview, 26873.

J. Maxwell-Wedderburn, Interview, 9146.

G. McDougall, Diary, LBY X. 46733.

M. Meades, Letters, 01/53/1.

J. Miller, Letters, 01/48/1.

R. Moore, Letters, 95/1/1.

A. Mudie, Letters, 1197.

H. Mullins, Interview, 7491.

H.L. Mundy, Interview, 5868.

J.W. Naylor, Interview, 729.

A.W. Page, Letters, 98/28/1.

J.R. Park, Letters, 13/13/1.

A.E. Parker, Letters and memoir, 99/22/1.

J. Pearce, Letters, 13303.

D. Pickford, Letters, 11301.

S. and V. Platt, Diaries, 15/8/1.

G. Pocock, Interview, 9761.

T. Povey, Letters, 08/147/1.

D. Price, Interview, 10168.

E. Rhodes, Interview, 10914.

A. Tattersall, Letters, 07/40/1.

R. Taylor, Interview, 11113.

A.G. Sadd, Letters, 96/57/1.

J. Sams, Letters, 02/551/1.

W.J.H. Shewry, Memoirs, 508.

H.A. Smith, Letters, 16164.

A.W. Stapleton, Memoir, 17245.

J. Tavernor, Letters, 09/6/1.

R.H. Turner, Letters, 22208.

A. Wagstaff, Interview, 17552.

P. Wall, Letters, 86/53/1.

B.A. West, Diaries, 537.

B. Whalley, Interview, 24551.

M.B. Wilkinson, Memoir, 09/47/1.

E.G. Williams, Interview, 10604.

S.S. Winsten, Interview, 784.

E.D. Wolton, Interview, 9090.

K.F. Wray, Interview, 4696.

A.E. Wrench, Diaries, 85/51/1.

W.L. Wright, Letters, 13/11/1.

Liddle Collection (1914–18), Special Collections, Brotherton Library, Leeds University, Leeds

D. Crockatt, Diary and letters, GS/0395.

F. Day, Letters, EP/015.

B. Evers, Letters, GS/0532.

R. Harvey, Letters, GS/0723.

P.F. Horton, Letters, CO/048.

S. Jones, Letters, GS/0869.

E. Lethem, Diaries, DF/074.

A.C. Payne, Letters, GA/DBC/67.

E. Polack, Memoir, GS/1283.

P. Puckle, Letters, memoir and interview, WO/097.

F.A. Spencer, Letters, EP/078.

V.M. Waldy, Letters, WO/128.

Burnett Archive of Working Class Autobiographies, Special Collections, Brunel University, London

P. Wall, ‘Hour at Eve’, 3.186.

Cadbury Research Library, University of Birmingham, Birmingham

G. Wells, Dairy, MS 117.

Lancashire Archives

H. Catlow, Interview, 2013.0685.

The National Archives, London

A. and D. Baggs, MH 47/60/7.

S. Harridge, MH 47/72/75.

J. Shallis, MH 47/95/22.

West Yorkshire Archive Service, Kirklees

F. Lockwood, Diaries, KC329.

Printed primary sources

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Anonymous, Diary of a Nursing Sister on the Western Front 1914–1915 (London, William Blackwood, 1915).

Anonymous, To My “Unknown” Warrior (London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1920).

Barbellion, W. N. P., The Journal of a Disappointed Man (London, Chatto & Windus, 1919).

Blacker, J. (ed.), Have You Forgotten Yet? The First World War Memoirs of C. P. Blacker (Barnsley, Leo Cooper, 2000).

Bliss, A., As I Remember (London, Thames Publishing, 1989).

Blunden, E., Undertones of War (London, Penguin, 1928, 2000).

Brittain, V., Chronicle of Youth. Great War Diary, 1913–1917, ed. Alan Bishop (London, Phoenix, 2002).

Brittain, V., Testament of Youth. An Autobiographical Story of the Years 1900–1925 (London, Virago, 1933, 1978).

Buchan, J., The History of the Royal Scots Fusiliers, 1678–1918 (London, Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1925).

——, These for Remembrance. Memoirs of 6 Friends Killed in the Great War (London, Buchan & Enright, 1919).

Buckley, F., Q.6.A and Other Places. Recollections of 1916, 1917, 1918 (London, Spottiswoode, Ballantyne & Co Ltd., 1920).

Cannan, M.W., Grey Ghosts and Voices (Kineton, Roundwood Press, 1976).

Carrington, C., Soldier from the Wars Returning (Barnsley, Pen & Sword Military Classics, 1965).

Cartmell, H., For Remembrance. An Account of Some Fateful Years (London, George Toulmin & Sons, 1919).

Cearns, P., The Love of a Brother. From Plaistow to Passchendaele (London, Cearns Books, 1917).

Chesterton, C.E., A History of the United States. With an Introduction by G. K. Chesterton (London, Chatto & Windus, 1919).

Chesterton, G.K., G. K. Chesterton: Autobiography (London, Hutchinson, 1936).

Cooksey, J. (ed.), Harry’s War. The Great War Diary of Harry Drinkwater (London, Ebury Press, 2013).

Cowen, R. (ed.), A Nurse at the Front. The First World War Diaries of Sister Edith Appleton (London, Simon & Schuster, 2012).

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Francis, T., ‘“All Quiet on the Western Front”. A No Man’s Land Narrative’, interview by ABC News ‘The Century’ project (1996),

Gibbs, A.H., Gun Fodder, The Diary of Four Years of War (Boston, Little, Brown, 1919).

Gillespie, A.D., Letters from Flanders (London, Smith, Elder & Co, 1916).

Graves, C., Great Days (London, Hutchinson, 1944).

——, The Bad Old Days (London, Faber, 1951).

Graves, R., Goodbye to All That (London, Penguin, 1929).

Grigson, G., The Crest on the Silver. An Autobiography (London, Cresset Press, 1950).

Hamilton, P., Three Years or the Duration. The Memoirs of a Munition Worker, 1914–1918 (London, Peter Owen, 1978).

Hart-Davis, R. (ed.), Siegfried Sassoon Diaries 1915–1918 (London, Faber & Faber, 1983).

Hobhouse, S., Forty Years and an Epilogue. An Autobiography, 1881–1951 (London, James Clarke & Sons, 1951).

Jones, H. P. M., War Letters of a Public School Boy, With a Memoir by His Father Harry Jones (London, Cassell & Co, 1918).

Kiernan, R.H., Little Brother Goes Soldiering (London, Constable, 1930).

Leake, R.E., Letters of a VAD (London, Andrew Melrose, 1918).

Leighton, C., ‘Preface’, in Alan Bishop (ed.), Chronicle of Youth. Great War Diary 1913–1917 (London, Phoenix Press, 1981).

Lucy, J.F., There’s a Devil in the Drum (Uckfield, Naval & Military Press, 1938).

Lynch, E. P. F., Somme Mud. The Experiences of an Infantryman in France, 1916–1919 (London, Doubleday, 2008).

Lyttelton, L. (ed.), Gilbert Walter Lyttelton Talbot: Born September 1, 1891. Killed in Action at Hooge, July 30, 1915 (London, Sidgwick & Jackson, 1917).

Mitchison, N., All Change Here. Girlhood and Marriage (London, Unwin, 1975).

Murray, J., Gallipoli as I Saw It (London, William Kimber, 1965).

Nash, P., Outline. An Autobiography and Other Writings (London, Faber & Faber, 1949).

Nichols, R., Aurelia and Other Poems (London, Chatto & Windus, 1920).

Noble, M., Marc Noble: a life (London, Country Life, 1918).

Owen, W., Poems. With an Introduction by Siegfried Sassoon (London, Chatto & Windus, 1920).

——, The Poems of Wilfred Owen, ed. E. Blunden (London, Chatto & Windus, 1931).

Patch, H. and van Emden, R., The Last Fighting Tommy. The Life of Harry Patch, the Oldest Surviving Veteran of the Trenches (London, Bloomsbury, 2007).

Pollard, A.O., Fire-Eater. The Memoirs of a V.C. (London, Hutchinson & Co, 1932).

Read, H., The Innocent Eye (Otley, Smith Settle, 1933).

——, Annals of Innocence and Experience (London, Faber & Faber, 1940).

Rogerson, S., Twelve Days on the Somme. A Memoir of the Trenches, 1916 (London, Greenhill Books, 1933, 2006).

Rolph, C.H., London Particulars (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1990).

Sassoon, S., Collected Poems (London, Faber & Faber, 1947).

——, Letters to a Critic (Nettlestead, Kent Editions, 1976).

——, Memoirs of an Infantry Officer (London, Faber & Faber, 1930, 1985).

——, Siegfried’s Journey, 1916–1920 (London, Faber & Faber, 1945).

——, The War Poems of Siegfried Sassoon (London, William Heinemann, 1919).Siepmann, H., Echo of the Guns. Recollections of an Artillery Officer, 1914–18 (London, Robert Hale Ltd, 1987).

Spencer, G., Stanley Spencer by His Brother Gilbert (London, Victor Gollancz, 1961).

Sutcliffe, S., Nobody of Any Importance. A Foot Soldier’s Memoir of World War I (London, Sutcliffe & Son, 2014).

——, The Somme Through the Eyes of a Foot Soldier Who Survived the Battlefield (London, Sutcliffe & Son, 2016).

van Emden, R. (ed.), Last Man Standing. The Memoirs of a Seaforth Highlander During the Great War. Norman Collins (London, Leo Cooper, 2002).

Vansittart, R.G., The Mist Procession. The Autobiography of Lord Vansittart (London, Hutchinson, 1958).

Wyrall, E., The History of the 62nd (West Riding) Division 1914–1919 (London, Percy Lund, Humphries & Co, 1924).

Yates, A., The Trooper, Memoirs of Arthur Yates, C.D., B.A., M.A. (Victoria, Canada: Trafford, 2001).

Young, M. and Gammage B. (eds), Hail and Farewell, Letters from Two Brothers Killed in France in 1916 (Kenthurst, NSW, Kangaroo Press, 1995).

Secondary sources

Abrams, L., Oral History Theory (London, Routledge, 2010).

Acton, C., Grief in Wartime. Private Pain, Public Discourse (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).

——, ‘Writing and Waiting: The First World War Correspondence between Vera Brittain and Roland Leighton’, Gender & History, 11:1 (1999), pp. 54–83.

Ahmed, S., The Cultural Politics of Emotion (Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 2004).

——, The Promise of Happiness (Durham, NC, Duke University Press, 2010).

Ariès, P., Centuries of Childhood. A Social History of Family Life (London, Jonathan Cape, 1960).

——, Western Attitudes toward Death: From the Middle Ages to the Present (Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press, 1974).

Arthur, M., Last Post (London, Cassell, 2005).

Atkins, A., We Grew Up Together. Brothers and Sisters in Nineteenth-Century America (Chicago, University of Illinois Press, 2001).

Bailey, P., ‘“Will the Real Bill Banks Please Stand Up?” Towards a Role Analysis of Mid-Victorian Working-Class Respectability’, Journal of Social History, 12:3 (1979), pp. 336–353.

Bank, S., The Sibling Bond (New York, Basic Books, 1982).

Barthes, R., Camera Lucida. Reflections on Photography (London, Virago, 1980, 2003).

Bedford, V., ‘Sibling Research in Historical Perspective: The Discovery of a Forgotten Relationship’, American Behavioral Scientist, 33:1 (1989), pp. 6–18.

Bertaux, D., and P. Thompson (eds), Between Generations, Family Models, Myths, and Memories (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1993).

Bet-El, I.R., Conscripts: Forgotten Men of the Great War (Stroud, Sutton, 1999).

Bogacz, T., ‘“A Tyranny of Words”. Language, Poetry, and Antimodernism in England in the First World War’, Journal of Modern History, 58:3 (1986), pp. 643–668.

Bornat, J., ‘Remembering and Reworking Emotions. The Reanalysis of Emotion in an Interview’, Oral History, 38:2 (2010), pp. 43–52.

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Bourne, J., ‘The British Working Man in Arms’, in Cecil H.and Liddle P. (eds), Facing Armageddon: The First World War Experience (London, Leo Cooper, 1996), pp. 336–352.

Boyden, P., Tommy Atkin’s Letters. The History of the British Army Postal Service from 1795 (London, National Army Museum, 1990).

Bracco, R.M., Merchants of Hope. British Middlebrow Writers and the First World War, 1919–1939 (Oxford, Berg, 1993).

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Cole, S., Modernism, Male Friendship and the First World War (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2003).

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——, Living with the Aftermath. Trauma, Nostalgia and Grief in Post-War Australia (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2001).

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——, Thicker than Water. Siblings and Their Relations 1780–1920 (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012).

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——, Familial Obligations and Social Change (London, Polity Press, 1989).

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——, The Last Great War. British Society and the First World War (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2008).

——, ‘Military Service Tribunals. Civil Society in Action, 1916–1918’, in Harris J. (ed.), Civil Society in British History: Ideas, Identities, Institutions (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2003b), pp. 177–190.

——, ‘Railway Stations: Gateways and Termini’, in J. Winter and J. Robert (eds), Capital Cities at War. Paris, London, Berlin 1914–1919 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 23–56.

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Griffin, E., ‘The Emotions of Motherhood: Love, Culture and Poverty in Victorian England’, American Historical Review, 123:1 (2018), pp. 60–85.

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Hamlett, J., Material Relations. Domestic Interiors and Middle-Class Families in England, 1850–1910 (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2010).

Hämmerle, C., ‘You Let a Weeping Woman Call You Home? Private Correspondence during the First World War in Germany and Austria’, in Earle R. (ed.), Epistolary Selves: Letters and Letter Writers, 1600–1945 (Aldershot, Ashgate, 1999), pp. 152–182.

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——, The Soldiers’ Tale. Bearing Witness to Modern War (London, Pimlico, 1997).

——, A War Imagined. The First World War and English Culture (London, Pimlico, 1990).

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——, Death in War and Peace. A History of Loss and Grief in England, 1914–1970 (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010).

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——, ‘“A Tribute to My Brother”. Women’s Literature and Its Post-War Ghosts’, Journal of War & Culture Studies, 8:1 (2015), pp. 7–23.

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Lamb, M. E. and B. Sutton-Smith (eds), Sibling Relationships. Their Nature and Significance across the Lifespan (Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1982).

Langhamer, C., The English in Love. The Intimate Story of an Emotional Revolution (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013).

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Leese, P., ‘“Why Are They Not Cured?” British Shellshock Treatment during the Great War’, in Micale M. S. and Lerner P. (eds), Traumatic Pasts. History, Psychiatry, and Trauma in the Modern Age, 1870–1930 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2001), pp. 205–221.

Levine-Clark, M., ‘The Gendered Economy of Family Liability. Intergenerational Relationships and Poor Law Relief in England’s Black Country, 1871–1911’, Journal of British Studies, 45:1 (2006), pp. 72–89.

——, Unemployment, Welfare, and Masculine Citizenship. ‘So Much Honest Poverty’ in Britain, 1870–1930 (London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015).

Loez, A., ‘Tears in the Trenches. A History of Emotions and the Experiences of War’, in MacLeod J. and Purseigle P. (eds), Uncovered Fields. Perspectives in First World War Studies (Leiden, Brill Academic, 2004), pp. 211–226.

Lutz, C. A. and L. Abu-Lughod (eds), Language and the Politics of Emotion (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990).

Macdonald, L., Somme (London, Penguin, 1983, 2013).

Madigan, E., Faith under Fire. Anglican Army Chaplains and the Great War (London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).

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Brothers in the Great War

Siblings, masculinity and emotions


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