Håkan Lundström
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Appendix 3
Terminology used

Appendix 3
Terminology used

Term Field Meaning
Affix Ling. Prefix or suffix
Anaphor Ling. A phrase that refers back to the previous phrase
Aspirated Ling. A consonant that is followed by a puff of air
Base (syllable) Ling. The original syllable whose vowel is reduplicated; see ‘Reduplication’
Boundary tone Ling. For instance, rising pitch at the end of questions
Chain-rhyme Poet. One of the last words of a line rhymes with one of the first in the following line
Coda Mus. An ‘extra’ musical phrase that ends a piece
Ling. The final consonant(s) of a syllable
Contour Mus. The graphic form of a melody in pitch and time
Contrastive Ling. Speech sounds that distinguish meanings, e.g. p and b in English (pill vs. bill)
Crotchet Mus. Quarter note. Tone often coinciding with the beat of a tune, notated: ♩
Downstep Ling. A lowering of pitch at the end of a phrase
Epenthetic vowel Ling. A vowel added in a word to make pronunciation easier
F0 Ling. Fundamental frequency (first harmonic) of e.g. the sound of a voice
Final formula Mus. A distinct and recurring ending
Formulaic Mus. Built on often recurring basic formulae
Glissando Mus. Sliding between two pitches
Gloss Ling. Translation of a word or part of a word
Iambic Poet. Poetic foot: short + long
Inflectional morphology Ling. Change of the form of a word that has a grammatical function, e.g. addition of the plural marker -s in English
Initial formula Mus. A distinct and recurring starting pattern
Interval Mus. The distance between two pitches
Intonation Ling. Pitch and stress pattern in speech
Isorhythm Mus. A rhythm pattern (of a melody) that dominates a tune
Language-centred Part of vocal expression dominated by linguistic patterns
Laryngeal Ling. Sound produced by the larynx, e.g. [h]
Laryngealization Ling. Articulation with laryngeal modification
Lexical tone Ling. Tones that differentiate words; e.g. tones in Kammu: high (kláaŋ ‘eagle’) vs. low (klàaŋ ‘stone’)
Line Poet. In oral tradition, usually defined by a long final syllable and/or a pause
Litany Mus. Poetry built on consecutive series of repeated phrases
Long vowel Ling. A vowel that has long duration and usually contrasts with a short vowel
Major syllable Ling. In e.g. Kammu, an ‘ordinary’ syllable that contains a vowel; e.g. in kmmú ‘human being’
Melody-centred Part of vocal expression dominated by melody
Minimal pair Ling. Pair of words that differ in only one element (e.g. lexical tone); cf. ‘contrastive’
Minor syllable Ling. In e.g. Kammu, a short unstressed pre-syllable; e.g. km in kmmú ‘human being’
Mono-melodic Mus. Music organized so that different sets of words are performed to the same melody or melodic frame
Mora Ling. The smallest rhythmical unit in languages like Japanese
Morphology Ling. How words are built from smaller meaningful elements such as prefixes, roots, and suffixes (e.g. un-load-ed)
Music-centred Part of vocal expression dominated by musical patterns
Onset Ling. The initial consonant(s) of a syllable
Original Mus. A theoretically conceived basic form of an orally transmitted piece of music
Performance template Mus. A tool for analysis of a performer’s assumed mental image of a vocal expression
Phonotactics Ling. How speech sounds can be combined in syllables or words
Phrase Ling. A group of words that in some way forms a unit
Pitch Mus. Tone height
Pitch level Mus. The approximate position of a number of tones
Prefix Ling. A meaningful element added at the beginning of a word, e.g. un- in unstable
Prosody Ling. Properties of a word or phrase such as stress, tone, and intonation
Pulsating tones Mus. Long tones with rhythmically organized glottal stops common in Native American music
Quaver Mus. Eighth-note. Short tone. Half the length of a crotchet. Notated:
Range Mus. The interval between the lowest and the highest tones of a performance
Reduplication Ling. Repetition of all or part of a word. For example, Kammu nàaŋ can be reduplicated as nàaŋ-a; nàaŋ is called the base and -a the reduplicant
Refrain Mus. Recurring musical phrase, often at the end of a stanza
Schwa vowel Ling. See ‘Epenthetic vowel’
Semiquaver Mus. Sixteenth-note. Very short tone. Half as long as a quaver. Notated:
Semitone Mus. The smallest interval in the diatonic musical scale, used e.g. in the tuning of pianos
Sequence Mus. Short melodic motif repeated in a descending or ascending series
Short vowel Ling. See ‘Long vowel’
Sonorant Ling. A consonant that can be sung, like [m] or [l]
Speech melody Ling. Intonation
Mus. Melodic movement strongly depending on intonation
Stanza Poet. In orally transmitted vocal expressions, a unit of two or more lines with a clear ending
Stop Ling. A consonant such as [p] or [t] produced by stopping the airflow
Suffix Ling. A meaningful element added at the end of a word, e.g. -ed in followed
Syllable Ling. A part of a word usually consisting of a vowel preceded and followed by consonants. For example, the word consist consists of the syllables con and sist
Tone-centred Part of vocal expression dominated by lexical tones
Tone duration Mus. The length of a musical tone
Tone repetition Mus. Series of repeated tones on the same pitch, often occurring at the end of musical phrases in Native American music
Tonic Mus. The basic tone, in oral traditions usually the tone that dominates the piece (in time) and often coincides with the final tone
Transposition Mus. Moving a melody to a higher or lower position. Here mainly in order to avoid complex notation or to make tunes easily comparable
Unaspirated Ling. A consonant that is not aspirated (not followed by a puff of air)
Undulating Mus. Melody progressing in ‘wave-form’ (cf. ‘Contour’)
Variant Mus. Variations of orally transmitted pieces of music that developed over a period of time, cf. ‘Original’
Vocable Ling. A syllable or word that is non-lexical, i.e. has no meaning
Vocal expression Mus. Those expressions that differ from ‘normal speech’
Vocal genre Mus. Sub-category of vocal expression
Vowel Ling. A speech sound produced with a relatively open vocal tract and vibration of the vocal cords
Vowel onset Ling. The beginning of a vowel
1 For further information, see Sleeper 2018.
2 Version 5.3.68, retrieved 20 March 2014. Internet reference: Praat: doing phonetics by computer.
3 See further Wim van der Meer’s manual, Internet reference Praat manual (for musicologists).
4 Internet reference: Melodyne.
5 Internet references: Sibelius; Scorecloud.
6 Internet reference: ELAN.
7 Sleeper 2018: 19 ff. See further Internet reference: Walshaw 2011 and 2015.
8 Internet reference: Audacity.
9 Internet reference: Sibelius.
10 Internet reference: ScoreCloud.
1 See further Internet reference: Numbered musical notation.
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In the borderland between song and speech

Vocal expressions in oral cultures


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