The Conclusion examines the contemporary fragmented construction of an Anglo-Canadian identity based upon mimicking Britain, while also revealing the considerable continuity with, and re-presentation of, the past that exists. The IODE has played a key role in the making of Anglo-Canada in the image of Britain, and has been an important part of British imperial and Canadian national history. In focusing on the IODE, this study makes a contribution to the new area of female imperialism. The IODE's unique position, as the oldest and largest female imperialist organisation, is easy to argue for. The IODE was by far the most active organisation of those composed of twentieth-century female imperialists, encompassed the most diverse membership and carried out the widest variety of projects. Having originated in Canada, it constitutes an intervention in British imperialism and in the developing nationalism of the white settler societies, because imperial histories have often seen imperialist attitudes as originating in Britain rather than in other parts of the Empire. The IODE's history shows how British imperialism and settler nationalism worked in one twentieth-century white dominion.
New Zealand claims Antarctica from the ‘heroic era’ to the twenty-first century
This chapter considers New Zealand’s strong connection to, and evolving relationship with, Antarctica. New Zealand staked a claim to the Ross Dependency in 1923; in 1958 Sir Edmund Hillary completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica. New Zealand was a signatory to the 1959 Antarctic Treaty, and in 1979 the plane crash at Mount Erebus cemented this location in the national psyche as a dangerous, dark place. This chapter identifies both significant historical events in which New Zealand has had an imperial presence, and current connections to Antarctica, at a time when artists, poets and writers have joined scientists in maintaining, developing and inventing the relationship between New Zealand and Antarctica.
New Zealand’s Empire revises and expands received histories of empire and imperialism. In the study of the imperial past, both colonial and postcolonial approaches have often asserted the dualism of core and periphery, with New Zealand as on the ‘edge’ or as a ‘periphery’. This book critically revises and makes complex our understandings of the range of ways that New Zealand has played a role as an ‘imperial power’, including the cultural histories of New Zealand inside the British empire, engagements with imperial practices and notions of imperialism, the special significance of New Zealand in the Pacific region, and the circulation of the ideas of empire both through and inside New Zealand over time. It departs from earlier studies of both imperial and national histories by taking a new approach: seeing New Zealand as both powerful as an imperial envoy, and as having its own sovereign role in Pacific nations - as well as in Australia and Antarctica - but also through its examination of the manifold ways in which New Zealanders both look back at and comment on their relationships with the ‘empire’ over time. In separate essays that span social, cultural, political and economic history, contributors test the concept of ‘New Zealand’s Empire’, taking new directions in both historiographical and empirical research.
This introduction describes the way in which the volume itself overturns the traditional assumptions around the concept of ‘empire’, by placing New Zealand at the centre of a ‘local world of imperialism’ that reaches out across the Pacific to include Sāmoa, Fiji, the Cook Islands, Tokelau, the Antarctic, and even Australia. In this way, the chapters span social, cultural, political and economic history to raise questions and test the concept of ‘New Zealand’s Empire’. Each of the four sections is introduced, along with a brief summary of each of the chapters.