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European integration and the rise of UKIP
Philip Lynch and Richard Whitaker

This chapter examines the difficulties that European integration has posed for the Conservatives under Cameron in the context of modernisation of the Conservative Party. It explores how two familiar problems, albeit in a new form, have reappeared and posed problems for Cameron’s modernisation project. First, the desire of EU Member States to pursue further integration has limited UK influence and second, Conservative divisions have returned with a vengeance, this time between soft Eurosceptics supporting membership of a reformed EU and hard Eurosceptics seeking fundamental renegotiation or withdrawal. The chapter also assesses an important new dimension to Conservative difficulties on the EU issue, namely the rise of UKIP. It looks at the challenge it poses and the Conservative response. The chapter concludes by considering how the EU issue may play out in the post-2015 general election period.

in David Cameron and Conservative renewal
Open Access (free)
A reassessment
Jon Seligman, Paul Bauman, Richard Freund, Harry Jol, Alastair McClymont, and Philip Reeder

The Ponar-Paneriai base, the main extermination site of Vilna-Vilnius, began its existence as a Red Army fuel depot in 1940. After Nazi occupation of the city in 1941 the Einsatzgruppen and mostly Lithuanian members of the Ypatingasis būrys used the pits dug for the fuel tanks for the murder of the Jews of Vilna and large numbers of Polish residents. During its operation, Ponar was cordoned off, but changes to the topography of the site since the Second World War have made a full understanding of the site difficult. This article uses contemporary plans and aerial photographs to reconstruct the layout of the site, in order to better understand the process of extermination, the size of the Ponar base and how the site was gradually reduced in size after 1944.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal